Monday, September 30, 2019
November 5, 1864 It feels like so long ago, but in reality little time has passed since my transformation, since my father killed me. It was barely a month past that Damon and I tried to save Katherine's life, and her blood saved ours. Barely a month since I was a living, warm-blooded human, who sustained himself on meals of meat and vegetables, cheese and wine Ã¢â¬â and who slept in a feather bed, with clean linen sheets. Yet it feels like a lifetime, and by some definitions, I suppose it is. But just as quickly as my fortunes turned after New Orleans, leaving me to live as a vagrant in a rocky hollow in the park, here I am at a proper desk under a leaded window, a thick rug at my feet. How quickly I am slipping back into human ways! The Sutherlands seem like a kind family. I picture tempestuous Bridget and her long-suffering older sister as mirror versions of Damon and myself. I never appreciated how harmless Damon's and my father's fights were back when they were just about horses and girls. I was always terrified one of them would say or do something that would end forever what semblance of a family we had left. Now that my father is dead and my brother and I are . . . what we are, I realize how much more serious things can get, and how simple and easy life was before. I shouldn't even stay here, even tonight. I should sneak out the window and flee to my place of exile. Being enfolded in the warm, living embrace of the Sutherland family for any amount of time, no matter how short, is dangerous and deceptive. It makes me feel like I could almost belong to the world of humans again. They don't realize they have welcomed a predator into their midst. All that would need to happen is for me to lose control once, to slip from my room right now and take my fill of one of them, and their lives would be filled with tragedy Ã¢â¬â just as mine became when Katherine arrived on our doorstep. Family has always been the most important thing to me, and I would be lying if I didn't admit how comforting it is to be among people who love one another, if only for one borrowed night. . . . For the first time since I'd left New Orleans, I rose with the sun, intent to slip out of the mansion and disappear into the morning mists before anyone came to wake me. But it was hard to resist the pull of crisp linen sheets, the soft mattress, the shelves of books, and the painted ceiling of my room. After admiring the fresco of winged cherubs above me, I pushed off the soft covers and forced myself out of bed. Every muscle in my body rippled under my pale skin, full of strength and Power, but every bone in my rib cage showed. The Sutherlands had taken my clothes to be washed but hadn't given me a nightshirt. I enjoyed the feeling of morning sunlight on my flesh, the glowing warmth fighting with the chill in the room. Though I'd never forgive Katherine for turning me into a monster, I was grateful at least for her lapis lazuli ring that protected me from the sun's otherwise fatal rays. The window was open the slightest bit, ushering a cool breeze into the room and setting the diaphanous curtains aflutter. Though temperature no longer affected me, I closed the window, locking the latch with some puzzlement. I could have sworn all the windows had been shut tight last night. Before I had time to further consider the matter, the tell-tale thump of a heartbeat sounded close by, and after a light knock, the door cracked open. Lydia stuck her head in, then immediately blushed and looked away from my nearly naked form. Ã¢â¬Å"Father was afraid you might try to leave without saying good-bye. I was sent to make sure you didn't charm a maid into helping you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm hardly in a state to sneak away,Ã¢â¬ I said, covering my chest with my arms. Ã¢â¬Å"I will need my pants to do that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Henry will be up shortly with your trousers, freshly pressed,Ã¢â¬ she said, keeping her eyes on the ground. Ã¢â¬Å"In the meantime, there is a bathing room just down the hall to the right. Please feel free to refresh yourself, and then come down to breakfast.Ã¢â¬ I nodded, feeling trapped. Ã¢â¬Å"And, Stefan.Ã¢â¬ Lydia looked up briefly and met my eye. Ã¢â¬Å"I do hope you'll be able to locate a shirt as well.Ã¢â¬ Then she smiled and slipped away. When I finally came downstairs for breakfast, the entire Sutherland clan was waiting for me Ã¢â¬â even Bridget, who was alive and stuffing toast into her face like she hadn't eaten in a fortnight. Except for a slight paleness to her complexion, it was impossible to tell that she'd nearly died the night before. Everyone turned and gasped as I approached. Apparently, I cut a different figure from the hero in shirtsleeves the night before. With freshly polished fine Italian shoes, neat pants, a new clean shirt, and a borrowed jacket Winfield had sent up for me, I was every inch the gentleman. I'd even washed my face and combed my hair back. Ã¢â¬Å"Cook made you some grits, if you like,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said, indicating a bowl of gloppy white stuff. Ã¢â¬Å"We don't usually indulge, but thought our Southern guest might.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, ma'am,Ã¢â¬ I said, taking the empty seat next to Bridget and eyeing the spread on the large wooden table. After my mother passed away, Damon, my father, and I made it a habit to dine casually with the men who we employed on the plantation. Breakfast was often the simple stuff of workers, hominy and biscuits, bread and syrup, rashers of bacon. What was laid out at the Winfield residence put to shame the finest restaurants in Virginia. English-style toast in delicate wire holders, five different types of jam, two kinds of bacon, johnnycakes, syrup, even freshly squeezed orange juice. The delicate plates had blue Dutch patterns, and there was more silverware than I was accustomed to seeing at a formal dinner. Wishing I still had a human appetite Ã¢â¬â and ignoring the fire in my veins that thirsted for blood Ã¢â¬â I pretended to dig in. Ã¢â¬Å"Much obliged,Ã¢â¬ I said. Ã¢â¬Å"So this is my little sister's savior,Ã¢â¬ said the one woman in the room I didn't know. Ã¢â¬Å"Allow me to introduce the eldest of my daughters,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said. Ã¢â¬Å"This is Margaret. First married. And first with grandchildren, we're hoping.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Papa,Ã¢â¬ Margaret admonished, before turning her attention back to me. Ã¢â¬Å"Pleased to meet you.Ã¢â¬ Where Bridget was full of life and the plumpness of youth and Lydia was the elegant, cultivated one, Margaret had something of a practical and inquisitive good sense, an earthiness that showed in questioning blue eyes. Her hair was black and inclined to straightness. Ã¢â¬Å"We were just discussing what prompted my child's rash actions,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said, bringing the conversation back to the previous night. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know why I ran off,Ã¢â¬ Bridget pouted, drawing deeply from a cup of orange juice. The older sisters gave each other looks, but their father leaned closer, worry lines marring his forehead. Ã¢â¬Å"I just felt that I absolutely had to leave. So I did.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was foolish and dangerous,Ã¢â¬ her mother reprimanded, shaking her napkin. Ã¢â¬Å"You could have died!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am glad to see you are doing so well today,Ã¢â¬ I said politely. Bridget grinned, displaying teeth that had little bits of orange pulp stuck in them. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. About that.Ã¢â¬ Margaret spoke up, tapping her egg spoon on the side of her plate. Ã¢â¬Å"You say you found her covered in blood in the park?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, ma'am,Ã¢â¬ I answered warily, taking the smallest piece of bacon on my plate. This sister sounded more astute than the others and wasn't afraid to ask uncomfortable questions. Ã¢â¬Å"There was a lot of blood, and Bridget's dress was torn.Ã¢â¬ Margaret pressed, Ã¢â¬Å"Did you find it odd that there was no actual wound?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Uh,Ã¢â¬ I stammered. My mind raced. What could I say? The blood was someone else's? Ã¢â¬Å"I thought there was a knife wound last night,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said, pursing her lips and thinking. Ã¢â¬Å"But it was just clotted blood, and wiping it down cleared it away.Ã¢â¬ Margaret pierced me with her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe she was afflicted with a nosebleed . . . ?Ã¢â¬ I mumbled lamely. Ã¢â¬Å"So you're saying that you didn't see any attacker when you came upon my sister?Ã¢â¬ Margaret asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, Meggie, you and your interrogations,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a miracle that Bridge is all right. Thank goodness Stefan here found her when he did.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes. Of course. Thank goodness,Ã¢â¬ Margaret said. Ã¢â¬Å"And what were you doing in the park last night by yourself?Ã¢â¬ she continued smoothly. Ã¢â¬Å"Walking,Ã¢â¬ I said, same as I had answered her father the night before. In the bright light of morning, it struck me as odd that Winfield had asked me nothing more than my name and why I'd been in the park. In times like these, and after his daughter had just suffered a great blow, it was hardly standard to accept a stranger into one's home. Then again, my father had offered refuge to Katherine when she'd arrived in Mystic Falls, playing the part of an orphan. A nagging piece of me wondered if our story could have ended differently, if the entire Salvatore brood would still be alive, if only we'd pressed Katherine for answers about her past, rather than tiptoeing around the tragedy she'd claimed had taken her parents' lives. Of course, Katherine had Damon and me so deeply in her thrall, perhaps it would have made no difference. Margaret leaned forward, not politely giving up the way Winfield had the night before. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not from around here, I take it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm from Virginia,Ã¢â¬ I answered as she opened her mouth to form the next, obvious question. In a strange way, it made me feel better to offer this family something real. Besides, soon enough I would be out of this house, out of their lives, and it wouldn't matter what they knew about me. Ã¢â¬Å"Whereabouts?Ã¢â¬ she pressed. Ã¢â¬Å"Mystic Falls.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I've never heard of it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's fairly small. Just one main street and some plantations.Ã¢â¬ There was some shuffling movement under the table, and I could only assume that either Bridget or Lydia was trying to give Margaret a good kick. If the blow was successful, Margaret gave no sign. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you an educated man?Ã¢â¬ she continued. Ã¢â¬Å"No, ma'am. I planned to study at the University of Virginia. The war put a stop to that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"War is good for no one,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said as he stabbed a piece of bacon with his fork. Ã¢â¬Å"The war put a stop to much casual travel back and forth between the states,Ã¢â¬ Margaret added. Ã¢â¬Å"What's that to do with anything?Ã¢â¬ Bridget demanded. Ã¢â¬Å"Your sister is suggesting that it's an odd time for me to come north,Ã¢â¬ I explained. Ã¢â¬Å"But my father recently died. . . .Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"From the war?Ã¢â¬ Bridget demanded breathlessly. Lydia and Mrs. Sutherland glared at her. Ã¢â¬Å"Indirectly,Ã¢â¬ I answered. A war had claimed my father's life, a war against vampires Ã¢â¬â against me. Ã¢â¬Å"My town . . . it burned, and there was nothing left for me anymore.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So you came north,Ã¢â¬ Lydia said. Ã¢â¬Å"To try your hand at business, maybe?Ã¢â¬ Winfield suggested hopefully. Here was a man with three daughters, three beautiful daughters, but no sons. No one to share cigars and brandy with, no one to push and encourage and compete with in the world of business. I was both worried and amused by the gleam in his eye when he looked at me. Surely there were families with sons in Manhattan who would make for more auspicious marital alliances. Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever I can do, I aim to make my way in the world on my own,Ã¢â¬ I replied, taking a sip of coffee. I would have to, without Lexi or Katherine to guide me. And if I ever saw Damon again, the only thing he would guide me toward was a newly sharpened stake. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are you living?Ã¢â¬ Margaret continued. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you have family here?Ã¢â¬ I cleared my throat, but before I had to tell my first real lie, Bridget groaned. Ã¢â¬Å"Meggie, I'm bored of this interrogation!Ã¢â¬ A hint of a smile bloomed on Lydia's lips, and she quickly hid it behind her napkin. Ã¢â¬Å"What would you prefer to talk about?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yourself?Ã¢â¬ Margaret said with an arched brow. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, actually!Ã¢â¬ Bridget said, looking around the table. Her eyes glowed as green as Callie's, but with her petulance on full display, she no longer reminded me of my lost love. Ã¢â¬Å"I still don't know why I ran out on the party.Ã¢â¬ Margaret rolled her eyes. Lydia shook her head. Ã¢â¬Å"I mean, you should have seen the looks I got!Ã¢â¬ she started up, waving her knife in the air for emphasis. Ã¢â¬Å"Flora's dress was the worst, especially considering she's a newly married woman. And my new sash Ã¢â¬â oh no, was it ruined last night? I would hate to have it ruined! Mama! Was it on me when Stefan brought me home? We have to go back to the park and look for it!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How about we go back to the park and look for the person who tried to kill you,Ã¢â¬ Margaret suggested. Ã¢â¬Å"We've already had a discussion with Inspector Warren about it. He promises a thorough investigation,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said. Ã¢â¬Å"But, Bridget, you must promise not to run off from the Chesters' ball this evening or I will be forced to stand watch over you in your bedroom.Ã¢â¬ Bridget crossed her arms over her chest with a huff. Ã¢â¬Å"And neither shall you run off,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said more pointedly to Lydia. The middle sister blushed. Ã¢â¬Å"Lydia has fallen in love with an Italian count,Ã¢â¬ Bridget confided, her pout evaporating as she indulged in gossip. Ã¢â¬Å"We all hope he asks her hand in marriage Ã¢â¬â wouldn't that be splendid? Then we'd all be like royalty, sort of, and not just rich merchants. Imagine, Lydia a countess!Ã¢â¬ Winfield laughed nervously. Ã¢â¬Å"Bridget . . .Ã¢â¬ Bridget fluttered her thick eyelashes. Ã¢â¬Å"It's so wonderful that Lydia has a suitor, much less a count. After Meggie was wed, I was afraid Mother and Papa would become traditional and not let me marry until Lydia did and who knew how long that was going to take.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Lydia is . . . particular,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh really, Mama,Ã¢â¬ Bridget rolled her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"As if anyone even had an interest before. And now she has a count. It's really . . . it's really not fair, you know, if you think about it . . . if I had a proper coming out . . .Ã¢â¬ I shifted in my seat, at once embarrassed for everyone, and yet glad to be involved in something as ordinary as a family squabble. This was the first time I'd been among company since leaving Lexi in New Orleans. Ã¢â¬Å"So many handsome, strange men in our lives these days,Ã¢â¬ Margaret said, somewhere between whimsy and warning. Ã¢â¬Å"What an odd coincidence, Mr. Salvatore. Perhaps I needn't make the grand tour, after all.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hush now, Margaret,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said. Ã¢â¬Å"And actually I have no one to go to the Chesters' with anyhow, Mama,Ã¢â¬ Bridget was continuing, actually growing red in the face as if she was trying quite hard to cry. She looked at me sidelong the entire time. Ã¢â¬Å"I am sure Milash won't escort me after last night. . . . I am in dire need of rescue. . . .Ã¢â¬ Bridget widened her green eyes at her father. Winfield frowned and stroked his muttonchops thoughtfully. In that moment, Bridget seemed as powerful as a vampire, able to compel her father to her every wish. Margaret put a hand to her head as if it ached. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Salvatore will take you,Ã¢â¬ Winfield said, gesturing at me with a fork full of biscuit. Ã¢â¬Å"He's rescued you once; I'm sure he's a gentleman who wouldn't leave you in distress again.Ã¢â¬ All eyes were turned on me. Bridget perked up, smiling at me like a kitten just offered a bowl of cream. I balked. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm afraid I haven't the proper attire . . .Ã¢â¬ I began. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, that is solved easily enough,Ã¢â¬ Mrs. Sutherland said with a knowing smile. Ã¢â¬Å"Once again,Ã¢â¬ Lydia murmured, too low for anyone else to hear, Ã¢â¬Å"we are holding poor Mr. Salvatore at our mercy. With pants.Ã¢â¬
Sunday, September 29, 2019
As of today, technology plays a vital role in almost every aspect of human existence. In the same way, this research paper treats technology as a vital part of the full swing implementation of health information systems as the new way of addressing and managing health issues. Information systems by elementary definition is the integration of technology based components that is used for the collection, storage, processing and communication (transmission) of information (Britannica, 2010, p. n.pag.). This research paper integrates the same meaning in its discussions regarding the policy planning and implementation of information systems in the field of health. More particularly, this research paper strives to explain the Public Health Informatics Institute policy issues through its extensive discussions of information systems.The World Health Organization (WHO) stresses that the integration of information systems in health care profits many individuals. Even if the full swing use of in formation systems in health care is still far from being realized, most health institutions such as the WHO deem that the creation of health information systems will make the identification, addressing and implementation of health policies comparatively easier. Addressing endemic health problems can be more efficient, even before an outbreak is declared due to the simultaneous monitoring capabilities of health information systems (Eldis.org, 2010, p. n.pag.).Information systems allow performance data to be easily disseminated to communities and individuals allowing the creation of a more timely consciousness regarding health issues (Eldis.org, 2010, p. 1). The data from the information systems can be treated as the evidence base of health policy making; the precision of data in information systems allows policymakers to determine the issues needed to be addressed (Eldis.org, 2010, p. 1). Finally, information systems empower health institutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ customers with the accountabili ty of their health institutions by making their transactions recorded and managed (Eldis.org, 2010, p. 1).The advantages projected with the blooming of health information systems can easily move health institutions to integrate their operations to information systems. However, such decisions cannot be easily made without a preliminary assessment of the current health industryÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and structures. The technological bias of health information systems creates a completely new dimension for the health care industry. Due to this, health institutions such as PHII oblige themselves to assess not only the practicability of such systems but also its feasibility to start with.PHII pushes for the issue of integrating information systems to the health industry by integrating it on existing health structures such as immunization registries. The integration of immunization registries to information systems insures that the registry will be efficiently managed without compromising the needed confidentiality of the population-based data of the registry (Saarlas, Edwards, Wild, & Richmond, 2003, p. 47).The policies of many health institutions toward health information systems are founded in the premises set by population based data such as immunization registries. The massive information needed to address even the smallest health problems can be found in population based health information (Hinman & Ross, 2010, p. n.pag.). In line with this, PHII pushes forth the integration of information systems in the health structure of immunization registries to insure that the structure can function at its optimum level. The new features of information systems are seen by PHII as the needed essentials to take the health care industry into a more efficient and accountable state. Conclusively, the integration of immunization registries is a start but not the end of the bloom of health information systems.BibliographyBritannica. (2010). Science and Technology: Information Syste ms. Retrieved August 4, 2010, from www.britannica.com: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/287895/information-systemEldis.org. (2010). Health management information systems. Retrieved August 4, 2010, from www.eldis.org: www.eldis.org/healthsystems/hmis/index.htmHinman, A. R., & Ross, D. A. (2010). Immunization Registries Can Be the Building Blocks for National Health Information Systems. Retrieved August 3, 2010, from www.phii.org: http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/full/29/4/676?ijkey=GH9RmlBCqfpKA&keytype=ref&siteid=healthaffSaarlas, K. N., Edwards, K., Wild, E., & Richmond, P. (2003). Developing Performance Measures for Immunization Registries. Public Health Management Practice , 47-57.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Chapter 5 Modeling and Simulation of Wind Turbine SystemSTANDALONE WIND ENERGY SYSTEMSize OF WIND SYSTEM COMPONENTSThe sizing methodological analysis adopted for the bing Wind power system for the small town Umrikheda is explained consistently as follows:Calculation of electric burdenThe burden of small town Umrikheda 150 kWh/day can be operated by the proposed base entirely weave energy system. The elaborate size methodological analysis adopted for day-to-day electrical burden of the distant small town Umrikheda which is operated by the present WIND system is given in below Table 5.1. Table 5.1: Electrical burden of small town UmrikhedaS. No.Energy ingestion ( Wh/day )1Families98,5002Street illuming15,8003School26,5004Others9200Entire150 kWh/dayThe entire day-to-day electric burden of the small town The designed burden for the air current energy system must be higher than the entire electrical burden of the location because at the clip of operation burden fluctuations and power losingss are occurs in the air current turbine system. The designed burden for the air current turbine system From equation ( 5.2 ) the day-to-day electrical ingestion for planing of air current turbine energy system is obtained as 225 kWh/day. The factor 1.5 is known as Fudge factor. This accounts for efficiency losingss, wiring and interconnectedness losingss and besides the battery charging and discharging losingss in the WES constituents.size of air current turbineThe selected air current turbine must fit the air current features at the site and it should bring forth optimal energy with a high capacity factor ( CF ) to run into the electrical energy demand. The Turbine size is determined utilizing Eq. ( 5.4 ) . Based on the power equation of air current turbine the diameter of turbine is considered 18 m so that the swept country of the air current turbine for the bing power system is obtained with the usage of diameter. The power equation for air and turbine are given as follows. Where ? is the air denseness and its value is 1.225, CPhosphorusis power coefficient with changeless value 0.59, A is the swept country of the selected air current turbine and V is the mean hourly air current velocity of the location which is 4.5 m/sec. based on Eq. ( 5.4 ) the power of one air current turbine is obtained as 8.38 kilowatt. The entire figure of wind turbine required to carry through the load demand of the location is 27 turbines each of 8.38 kilowatt capacities.Sizing of battery bankThe battery bank size in kW hr can be determined by the Eq. ( 5.5 ) . For bettering life of battery and for back-to-back cloudy yearss the figure of autonomy yearss is considered as 3 yearss in the proposed air current power system. The deep cycling will be occasional during nebulose yearss and therefore better the battery life. The three yearss of liberty was used by zero energy visitants centre ( ZEVC ) located at the Van Ness Campus of University of the District of Columbia as reported in 2006 by the Center of Excellence for Renewable Energy ( CERE ) [ 7 ] . Battery bank Size Here the figure of autonomy yearss is considered 3 yearss and the maximal deepness of discharge for the battery bank is taken 75 % . The size of battery bank is 900 kWh calculated by Eq. ( 5.5 ) .Capacity of battery bankThe capacity of the battery bank in ampere-hours can be evaluated by spliting the safe energy storage required by the DC electromotive force of one battery as shown in Eq. ( 5.6 ) . In the bing system we have chosen the evaluation of battery is 12 V and 350 Ah. Harmonizing to the obtained capacity of the battery bank from Eq. ( 5.6 ) , another determination has to be made sing the capacity of each of the batteries of that bank. The battery bank is composed of batteries that are connected in series and in parallel harmonizing to the selected battery electromotive force evaluation and the system demands.Number of batteriesThe entire figure of batteries is obtained by spliting the capacity C of the battery bank in ampere-hours by the capacity of one of the battery selected in ampere-hours which is calculated by Eq. ( 5.7 ) . The figure of batteries required for the system is obtained from the Eq. ( 5.7 ) is 214.28 which is rounded to 216 batteries. The connexion of batteries can easy be figured out by happening out the figure of series and parallel affiliated batteries. With system DC-voltage of 48 V, the figure of batteries connected in series is obtained by Eq. ( 5.8 ) . The figure of series connected batteries is determined by Eq. ( 5.8 ) which is 4. With the usage of this value we can cipher the batteries connected in analogue or the figure of strings by Eq. ( 5.9 ) which is as follows. No. of strings ( batteries connected in analogue ) The figure of parallel strings of four series connected batteries is determined by Eq. ( 5.9 ) . The entire figure of batteries is 216 which can be arranged in 54 parallel strings and each of the twine consists of 4 series connected batteries. The Ah capacity of battery bank gets added when batteries are connected in analogue and remains same when batteries are connected in series.Converter sizingThe convertor size is chosen as it fulfills the burden demand when the system is non runing. The dc electromotive force of the bing system is 48 V so the convertor must be chosen which takes the Ac end product from the air current turbine and change over it into 48 V District of Columbia. The evaluation of convertor should ne'er be lower than the system evaluation, it is ever 10 % higher than the system evaluation. The size of convertor for the present system can be calculated by Eq. ( 5.10 ) . The mean power of the contraptions that may run at the same time at the same clip is taken as 40 kilowatt. So the needed convertor must be capable of managing 40 kilowatt.Cost OF SYSTEM COMPONENTSCost of turbineTurbine is dwelling of four chief constituents as Blades, Hub, nose cone and tower. The cost of all these constituents is sums up for finding the entire cost of air current turbine. The below look shows the entire cost of turbine as follows. In the present survey we have used WES 5 Tulipo type air current turbine. The cost of one air current turbine is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 51000 and the entire cost of air current turbine is obtained as aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 1,377,000.Cost of battery bankThe cost of battery bank can be calculated on the footing of existent size of the battery bank. Cost of battery bank can be calculated by the Eq. ( 5.12 ) . The cost of one battery bank is multiplied by the entire figure of batteries to cipher the coat of battery bank. The cost of one battery of bank is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 13000 as reported by SECO [ 6 ] and besides reported in website [ 13 ] .Cost of convertorThe cost of convertor can be calculated by below Eq. ( 5.13 ) The cost of convertor determined by Eq. ( 13 ) is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 178479824.Capital investing cost of air current energy system ( CO)The capital cost of air current power system includes the construction cost and the cost of land used for the system. In the present survey the land required for puting air current turbines and batteries is 5000 pess2. Cost of land in the proposed small town Umrikheda is 555.5 Rs/feet2. So, the entire monetary value of land is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? . 2,800,000 approximate. The capital investing cost of the air current system is calculated by below Eq. ( 5.14 ) . The balance of system or construction cost is about 20 % of the entire air current system constituent cost which is widely assumed all over the universe as reported by SECO [ 6 ] Besides, assume that cost of securing the land for the air current energy system is 20 % of the entire air current system component cost. Based on these premises, the capital cost ( CO) for the air current system is determined utilizing above combining weight. ( 5.14 ) .Operating and care cost of the systemThe operating and care cost for the proposed system is 2 % of the capital cost of the system. The computation of the operating and care cost is as given by Eq. ( 5.15 ) The operating and care cost of is added to the capital investing cost of the system to happen out the modified cost of the system. So, the modified capital investing cost of the system is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 10,734,233.24 with the usage of EqÃ¢â¬â¢s. ( 5.14 ) and ( 5.15 ) .LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS FOR WT SYSTEMReplacement cost of battery bank systemIn the present Wind energy system the life of air current turbine and the battery is considered as 30 old ages and 5 ears severally and the life rhythm cost analysis is based on the life clip of both the turbine and the battery. The subsidised involvement rate usually offered by authorities sectors in India to advance the usage of renewable energy applications is 4 % . So, we have taken the rate of involvement is 4 % for our system. In India the old batteries are replaced on the discount of 7 % on entire cost of battery. With the premise of unvarying replacing of battery throughout the life of the system the replacing cost of battery bank after 5 old ages is calculated by Eq. ( 5.16 ) In the present system the replacing cost of batteries is obtained as aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 2611440.Present Battery bank costThe present cost of battery bank for future investings at every five old ages interval can be determined by combining weight. ( 5.17 ) as follows: ( 5.17 ) The present battery bank cost is obtained as aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 7547648.06 with 4 % involvement rate. 4 % is the subsidised involvement rate usually offered by authorities sectors in India to advance the usage of renewable energy applications. In this life rhythm cost analysis the salvage value ( S ) of WT system at the terminal of 30 old ages life was assumed equal to the present cost of balance of system since the depreciation of balance of system was considered tantamount to the rate of escalation in the monetary value of structural steel per kilogram.Present Salvage value of WT systemThe present salvage value of the system can be calculated by Eq. ( 5.18 ) Net Present cost of WT systemNet present cost of WT system ( CInternet) is determined as summing up of capital investing ( CO) , all other cost constituents converted into present cost and subtracted by present salvage value. The net present cost of PV system was determined utilizing Eq. ( 5.19 ) as follows: Annualized Lifecycle Cost of WT systemThe annualized life rhythm cost of WT power system over the 30 old ages lifetime is expressed mathematically utilizing Eq. ( 5.20 ) [ 14 ] as follows Capacity use factor ( CUF )The capacity use factor can be calculated by the undermentioned Eq. ( 5.21 ) . The CUF is calculated to ease the unit cost of electricity. The CUF is obtained by the above Eq. which is basically a step of electrical energy generated per KW of installed capacity per twelvemonth.Capital recovery factor ( CRF )The below Eq. ( 5.22 ) shows the look of capital recovery factor. It is used to find the sum of each hereafter rente payment required to roll up a given present value for known values of involvement rates and figure of payments. 4 % is the subsidised involvement rate usually offered by authorities sectors in India to advance the usage of renewable energy applications.Unit of measurement cost of electricity ( UCE )Using the capacity use factor the unit cost of electricity can be calculated by below Eq. ( 5.23 ) . Where COis the capital cost, m is the fraction of capital cost used on operation and care of the system and P is the capacity of the air current power coevals system.Payback periodThe EPBT signifies clip period required by energy output for counterbalancing the energy investings on the Stand Alone Wind Turbine power works. The energy payback clip for the bing SAWT system installed on steel construction over the land surface can be calculated based on the below Eq. ( 5.24 ) . The payback period for the proposed Wind Turbine system is calculated as 14.43 old ages with aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 9 Per unit cost of the system running for 30 old ages.Carbon monoxide2EMISSION MITIGATION AND CARBON CREDIT POTENTIAL FROM PROPOSED SAWT SYSTEMThe C recognition potency of Wind power system is determined on the footing of entire sum of CO2emanations extenuation from the system in its life clip. The Co2emanation and C recognition potency are given by the below expression.Co2emanation mitigated from WT systemConversion of Energy through Wind Turbine ( WT ) system is one of the more dependable and environmental friendly renewable energy engineerings which have the possible to lend significantly in the development of sustainable energy systems for coevals of power. It besides plays an of import function in CO2emanations extenuation. To cipher the entire CO2emanations mitigated from the present SAPV power system a mathematical calculation is carried out. The mean strength of CO2emanation from coal thermic power works in India is 1.57 kg/kWh [ 1, 16 ] . The entire extenuation of CO2emanations from the bing SAWT system for 30 old ages life can be calculated utilizing Eq. ( 5.25 ) as follows: ( 5.25 ) A air current turbine power system does non disperse immense sum of heat energy into the environing environment and saves a big sum of CO2emanations. Hence, WT systems are eco friendly systems and a good option for power coevals and must be preferred where electricity is non available or grid power is costlier. Carbon Credit potency of proposed WT system The entire sum of C recognition earned by proposed Wind Turbine power system can be calculated by the undermentioned Eq. ( 5.26 ) as follows. ( 5.26 ) The factor considered in Eq. ( 5.26 ) is aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 1760/ton of CO2extenuation represents the pecuniary value of one C recognition for extenuation of 1 ton of CO2emanation [ 18 ] .Consequence of C recognition potencyThe CO2emanation extenuation from the bing power system is estimated as 88.31 tons/year from Eq. ( 5.25 ) for n peers to 1 twelvemonth. The entire CO2emanation mitigated by bing PV system in 30 old ages life clip is estimated utilizing Eq. ( 5.25 ) as 2649.375 dozenss. The C recognition from the bing WT system is obtained utilizing EqÃ¢â¬â¢s. ( 5.25 ) and ( 5.26 ) . The C recognition affects the unit cost of electricity produced from non-polluting WT power system.ConsequenceThe life rhythm cost analysis is carried out for the presented standalone Wind Turbine power system and the cardinal consequences obtained are listed in Table 5.4. The unit electricity cost utilizing Wind Turbine systems were estimated as aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 9/kWh for the involvement rate of 4 % , 30 old ages life of WT system and 5 old ages life of battery bank. Table 5.2: Consequences of WT power systemS.No.ComponentCost ( aÃ¢â¬Å¡? )1Wind Turbine1,377,0002Battery bank2,808,0004Converter1,784,798.45Capital investing10,734,233.246Battery replacing2,611,4407Salvage value3,313,034.958Net nowadays value14,968,882.359 10 11Unit of measurement cost of electricity Carbon monoxide2emanation mitigated Carbon recognition earned9/kWh 2649375 dozenss or 88.31 tons/yr aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 4519833.75 or aÃ¢â¬Å¡? 150661.125/yrThe energy consumed by the burden per twelvemonth was determined as 56250 kWh/year and matching CO2 emanation mitigated is estimated as 88.31 tons/year. The entire CO2 emanation mitigated by bing PV system in 30 old ages life clip was estimated utilizing Eq. ( 5.25 ) as 2649.375 dozenss.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Nuclear Power in Iran - Research Paper Example The paper also emphasizes on the operations of the power programs and the research centers that were developed in Iran. Iran, which is considered to be the country that has highest nuclear power established many nuclear power plants to use the power in an effective way. The power plants are the major source of income to the country. The European countries helped Iran to establish power plants and to use them in an efficient way. This article concentrates mainly on the nuclear power and the power plants in Iran. Iran has used the nuclear power to yield more profit to its country. (Benliot, 2001).Though most of the other countries were against the policy of using the nuclear power and establishing power plants, some of the developed countries have lent a helping hand to Iran. This was the greatest advantage and Iran used these opportunities to make use of the nuclear power. The nuclear weapons program was also developed during the 1950's and it became one of the serious issues of that time. Iran started to export oil and gas with the help of the nuclear power. This was achieved by Shah and the target was decided as 23,000 Megawatts. Since then the export of oil and gas became an important part of the country's economy. The Islamic revolution contributed to The Iranian revolution began in the year 1979.The nuclear power program was successful till 1979 and the Iranian revolution created many problems. ... The Iranian government struggled to maintain the stable situation of the government. The nuclear power program which worked effectively till then fell as a victim to the Iranian revolution. The export operation of oil and gas was temporarily suspended and the payment for the nuclear power was also stopped. (Erlich, 2003).The Iranian revolution then led to various other problems that contributed to the issues that arose in the beginning of 1980's. Though the revolution led to problems, it also had certain positive effects. The United States declared the nuclear power since it was in the preliminary stage and this was one of the reasons to the suspension of the export of nuclear weapons. Since this was against the norms of the government it created problems. The import, export or manufacture of nuclear weapons was completely against a country's rules and regulations. During this problem many people from U.S.A were kept as hostages in Iran. This led to a situation where U.S opposed the Iran's idea of nuclear plants and programs increased. The Iranian revolution was not favorable and most of the countries decided to stop their contracts and dealings with Iran. Though most of the countries did not deal directly with the nuclear operations, they decided to end their proposals and communications with Iran. The main aim of this revolution was to improve the existing situation of Iran. But the result was not as expected by the government and the neighboring countries. This article gave more importance to the problems that Iran faced after the implementation of nuclear program. The logic of the article lied in the explanation of the nuclear power and its impact on the other countries. The author emphasizes on the importance of the nuclear power
Thursday, September 26, 2019
A strategic pretext for Knowledge- Michael Zack - Essay Example Zack firmly holds his stance when he says that proper & timely Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge managementÃ¢â¬â¢ is essential for the successful implementation of a strategy, & henceforth essential for the growth & survival of any organization. He demarcates instances when organizations have accepted & attempted to use the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge managementÃ¢â¬â¢, but failed due to the mismanagement in the Ã¢â¬Ëprocedure of usageÃ¢â¬â¢. In this discourse, he dives in to explain the procedures of a successful usage of this unique strategical technique. The writer gives a set of guidelines, norms, decorums & procedure, through which this notion can be materialized from theory to practicality (Zack, n.d., pp.1-2). The author begins with a concise appraisal of traditional strategy & how these concepts can be extended to knowledge as a strategic foundation. The writer denotes that his primary objective is to provide a framework for initiating & facilitating dialogue among strategic managers & KM practitioners concerning the exact strategic function of knowledge. Zack creatively divides the notion of strategy in to four parts: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, & threats (Zack, n.d, pp.1-2). He calls the quartet by name of SWOT by adding up the abbreviations of all the words. This uniqueness of the ZackÃ¢â¬â¢s evaluation makes the notion of KM even more interesting a topic to delve in. Zack emphasizes by saying that a SWOT analysis discovers a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths & weaknesses in relation to the opportunities & threats of its existing environment. The discourse advices firms to take strategic actions to restore strengths, counterbalance weaknesses, avert threats & capitalize on opportuni ties. For Zack, proper strategical notions are the perfect balancing acts which could rescue a company from the jaws of annihilation (Zack, n.d, pp.1-2). Zack suggests division of the SWOT framework in to two
Quality and Performance Excellence - Essay Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that Baldrige focuses on the performance excellence for all aspects of an organization in an overall management framework. Six Sigma deals with the internal quality with an aim of improving the standards and reducing the costs. Overall, they are all similar since they deal with quality improvement in the workplace.ISO 9000, on the other hand, pay more attention to the quality and conformity of the products and services according to the set guidelines to provide equity in the market. The system is more concerned with fixing the issue with the products and service non-conformity and quality system problems. For the Six Sigma, more emphasis is laid on measuring the quality of the products and working on process improvement design to reduce the overall costs. All these processes, however, are management-led, data-based, process focused and aims at helping the organization improve performance and increase customer satisfaction. The level of emphas is and how these processes of operations are carried out causes variation within an organization such as the quality of the processes policies instituted, and the review of these policies. TecSmart Electronics dwell on quality, service and to meet the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations which in turn help the organization grow. The management of the company followed some of the quality and performance excellence models which help it maintain a clear focus. One of the quality and performance models the company has focused on is the DemingÃ¢â¬â¢s 14 points. Some of the plans instituted include framing company policies such as an emphasis on quality and services. Imparting skills to the employees and dissemination of the information; information gathering for quality control; analysis of the obtained data to assess the areas where to rectify; standardization of the products and services; quality assurance of the entire processes and having future plans about the organization.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Thornton's Strategic Choices - Essay Example At that time, he might have not realized that the foundation of his shop was actually the foundation of an international business, which would continue to grow in the coming decades, and his products would reach many countries. His two sons, Norman and Stanley, joined their father and started conduct many of functions, such as manufacturing, packaging, retailing and others, in-house. During the 1920s, the shop started attracting customers from distant areas and the benefits of constant product innovation became apparent to Thorntons (Allen, 2010, p. 85). During the 1970s, the company slowly started expanding into the neighbouring countries of Europe and Australia. By the year 1972, the exports to these countries accounted more than 0.3 million pounds. Impressed with the gains made through exports, the company decided to enter into US market with the long-term expansion plan of setting up 100 stores in the next decade (Mullins and Walker, 2009, p. 390). Although, the company would hav e to later close down the purchased shops and abandon these plans because of failures in the US market. By the late 1980s, Thorntons had established itself as a strong brand name in UK with 170 company owned shops and 100 franchised outlets. Thornton had become an important brand name of chocolate at High Street. Thornton had now become a public company, with impressive share performance (Thornton and Bishton, 2009, p. 258). Business Model and Operations Thorntons only has a 1 percent market share of the confectionary market and claims to be having a 6 percent share of the confectionary gift market according to the statistics from the year 2009. Nevertheless, the company is the biggest manufacturer and retailer of specialist chocolates in the UK market. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core product is boxed chocolates and it believes that its core competency lies in the manufacturing of these chocolates, with the help of quality ingredients and company owned recopies (Mullins and Walker, 2009, p. 390). The in house manufacturing method is largely labour intensive. The company relies on outside suppliers for packaging, basic liquid chocolate and solid chocolate bars (noncore business). In order to make up for sales during low seasons, the company would go on to sell ice creams and greeting cards as well but in selected outlets, mostly franchised. The company places special attention on the freshness of its product, in order to provide a unique customer experience (Thornton and Bishton, 2009, p. 258). As mentioned earlier, Thornton has been distributing its product to the customers in two different ways. First, the company owned stores, which were costly to acquire or obtain and to maintain in the long term as well. However, the company could ensure greater control over the business and in terms of interaction with
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Monday, September 23, 2019
Managing Employee Relations - Essay Example Within the practice and study of business and management, Human Resource Management has emerged as the arena for discourse on employee relations and optimal human resource management trends and paradigms. As with any other discipline and field of practice, it has undergone several changes over the past decades and is engaged in a multitude of debates. These changes have been imposed upon it by shifting ideologies, on the one hand, and by the mercurial nature of the international political economy, hence, global business, on the other. The debates have been instigated by these same forces, amongst others. Among the more important of these debates is that which pertains to the relevancy of the pluralist ER ideology within the context of a globalised business environment. Through an exploration of the ways and means by which globalisation has impacted employer-employee/employee-organisation relations and a critical analysis of the more dominant of the ER theoretical frameworks, this res earch will argue in favour of the argument which disputes the relevancy of pluralism to current business realities. In other words, the research will provide evidentiary support for the assertion that the pluralist ideology is troublesome, archaic and serves no purpose in today's global economy. 2 Globalisation Globalisation has impacted firms on two levels. In the first place, it has internationalised the domestic consumer and labour markets. According to Tayeb (2000) this means that firms' internal and external environments have globalised whereby, not only do firms serve an international customer base and have to contend with international competition but their workforce is increasingly diverse and multicultural. In the second place, globalisation has impacted firms in that it has forced many to internationalise. Again, as Tayeb (2000) explains, globalisation has prompted numerous firms to engage in foreign direct investment and to adopt a multinational corporate structure. The implication, thus, is that globalisation has influenced a change in both the structure of corporations and in the way they approach their consumers and marketplace. Needless to say, the mentioned has necessitated a reworking, or reconsideration, of dominant ER paradigms. These changes are perceptible on both the d omestic and international levels. 2.1 Domestic Employee-Employer Relationships So as not to digress from the principle topic, the changes which globalisation has induced upon domestic employee-employer relationships will be summarised through a brief reference to diversity. As Dreachslin (2007) explains, changing demographic realities, compounded with globalisation, have forced UK firms to hire an increasingly multicultural and diverse
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Andrew Jackson DBQs Essay Document C Source: Reprinted by permission of P.K. Yonge Library of Florida History, University of Florida. Hermitage August 27th, 1822 Dr. Bronough, I had the pleasure on last evening to receive your letter of the 22nd. It affords me great pleasure to be informed of your flattering prospects of success on your election (as Florida TerritoryÃ¢â¬â¢s first delegate to the House of Representatives)Ã¢â¬ ¦. If the soldiers be admitted to vote you are safe, the army will stick by youÃ¢â¬ ¦Under existing circumstances, it would be impolitic and unjust to make a property qualification. Residence alone, injustice to all, should be requires. This is the only rule that can be established until your land titles are adjudicated. And your vacant land, brought onto the market. Then in your constitution you can adopt such qualifications as you may think proper for the happiness, security, and prosperity of the state. Until then all freemen of six months residence should be entitled to a voteÃ¢â¬ ¦. Document D Source: Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and The Course of American Empire, Vol III, Copyright (c) 1984. Reprinted by permission from Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. (T)he Generals views on office holding became even more democratic as he grew older. He proceeded from the (idea) that all offices whether appointed or elected must ultimately fall under the absolute control of the people. Appointed offices should be rotated, preferably every four years. Elected offices must be filled directly by the people. In keeping with this principle, Jackson tried to abolish the College of Electors in the selection of the chief executive by proposing a constitutional amendment. In addition, he said, the President should serve a single term of no more than four or six years. Moreover, he believed that United States senators should be directly elected by the people. Also, their term should be limited to four years and they should be subject to removal Document N Source: H. Eaton, A Treatise on the Intellectual Character and Civil and Political Condition of the Colored People of the United States, 1837. Jacksons Call To the Free Coloured Inhabitants of Louisiana before the Battle of New Orleans, September 21,1814 Through a mistaken policy you have heretofore been deprived of a participation in the glorious struggle for national rights, in which our country is engaged. This shall no longer exist. To every noblehearted free man of color, volunteering to serve to the present contest with Great Britain and no longer, there will be paid the same bounty in money and lands now received by the white soldiers of the United States, viz. $124 in money, and 160 acres of land. The non-commis sioned officers and privates will also be entitled to the same monthly pay and daily rations and clothes furnished to any American soldier. On enrolling yourselves in companies, the major general com manding will select officers for your government, from your fellow white citizens. Your non-commissioned officers will be appointed from among yourselves. Due regard will be paid to the feelings of freemen and soldiers. You will not, by being associated with white men in the same corps, be exposed to improper comparisons or unjust sarcasm. As a distinct, indepen dent battalion or regiment, pursuing the path of glory, you will, undivided, receive the applause and gratitude of your countrymen.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Friendliness and perception of social support Generally, this study investigate whether local student perceived more social support as compared to out-of-state student and to examine the relationship between friendliness and social support. A total of 120 participants aged between 17 to 24 years was surveyed. The participants are local college student (n=30 males and n=30 females) and out-of-state college student (n=30 males and n=30 females) from the Sunway University College. The instrument used to gather the data are Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet et al., 1988) and Friendliness-Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Reisman Billingham, 1989). It is found that local student received more social support as compared to out-of-state student. Moreover, a very significant positive relationship was also found between friendliness and total perceived social support. Students these days face difficulty in college or even university as it is hard for them to adapt to new environment, subjects and also friends, hence it will be difficult especially for the international student to adjust themselves in another country due to so many factor that can affect their level of stress as compared to the local students (Mista, Crist Burant, 2003). However, researchers (e.g. Cohen Wills, 1985; Baron and Kenny, 1986), noted that social support helps to buffer stress. As defined by Lahey (2007, p.510), social support is a form of support given by any family members and friends given that they advise or lend a hand to an individual whom needs reveal their personal feeling. Cohen (1982) categorizes social network, perceived social support and supportive behavior under social support, where the three categories are inter-related such that perceived social support is defined as perceived social support refers to the function of social relationship as the perception that social relationship will (if necessary) provide resources such as emotional support or information and supportive behaviours refer to the mobilization and receipt of behaviors intended to aid persons in the face of stressful events (p.109). In addition, Demaray and Malecki (2002) defined perceived social support as a type of general support or specific supportive behaviors from any of their friends, family or relatives given that they may help to buffer the unpleasant feeling or emotio n of an individual. Researchers for this study, defined local student as student who are brought up by their parents or guardian and live in the state of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia whereas, out-of-state student is to be define as the student who are brought up in other states in Malaysia (excluding Selangor and Kuala Lumpur) or student who are from other country also known as international student but studying in Malaysia. As for friendliness, it is defined by Reisman (1983) saying that friendliness is a construct or dispositional tendency or attitude that implies kindliness, cordiality, and goodwill (p. 405). Reisman also added that friendliness is also a belief or feelings that people have about themselves, as well as to overt behaviors, such as smiling, greeting, and cooperating(p. 406). Past research, Misra, Crist and Burant (2003), found that International students whom are studying in American universities faces more problem such as adjusting and getting use to a new environment. The international student feel stressed up and uncomfortable for example, they have to adapt new culture and even new subject. At the same time, they also have workload that needs to be complete within a time period therefore this also causes stress. Therefore a study was carried out with a total sample of 143 participants whom are students from Africa, Asia, Middle East and America and it was found that social support do help buffer stress. Social support can act as a buffer for in many aspects. According to Demaray and Malecki (2002) social support is said to become an important role in students life because it is found that students with low perceived support obtained significantly higher scores on problematic behavior (p. 238). It is also noted by Rodriguez et al. (2003), that a person can be influence strongly by anyone that is not a family member of that person as it has been verify by research. However, it is proven that individual with social support will be able to deal with their unpleasant situation better than those individual who do not have social support (Rodrigeuz et al., 2003). In addition, social support is also important to buffer stress for college student (Cohen Wills, 1985) Nonetheless, opposing opinion was stated in Taylor et al. (2004) that it is more beneficial for social support which are not make use of rather than social support that are being utilized due to the result found by Wethington and Kessler (as cited in Taylor et al., 2004) that perceived social support was a stronger predictor of adjustment to stressful life events than received support (p. 355). Another result was found by Boron and Kenny (1986), indicating that the level of stress is affecting an individual social support that is received. At the same time, friendliness is also related to well being (Gill, 2008) when a place have more friendly people a children well being can be improve and through that the children will receive more social support. In addition, friendly people will gain more support as seen in Sullivan (1999), shows that friendly student will be able to blend in a group and help each other and provide support. Besides, Berndt and Perry (1986) also found that friendship helps when an individual is in a stressful situation and social support from friends is gain. This present study will look into which group of student: local student and out-of-state student will receive more social support and also to study from who the social support is receive from: family; friends; significant other. According to Eker, Arkar and Yaldiz (2000) the term significant other is defined as somebody outside ones family and friends (e.g. fiancÃ © (e), boy/girlfriend, relative, neighbor, doctor). Simultaneously, friendliness will also be analyze with social support to examine whether is there a significant relationship between friendliness and social support. Hypothesis The first hypothesis for this study is local student receive more social support as compared to out-of-state student. The second hypothesis for the study is there is a positive relationship between friendliness and social support. Method Study Design Survey design consists of two types of method which are questionnaire and interview. However questionnaire was picked to conduct the survey instead of interview because the research involves a large number of participants. The questionnaire consists of two types of scale; Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet et al., 1988) and Friendliness Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Resiman Billingham, 1989). For the first hypothesis, the dependent variable is perceived social support and the independent variable is the type of student; local student or out-of-state student. Whereas for the second hypothesis, the dependent variable is friendliness and the independent variable is social support. Participants A total number of one hundred and twenty students from the Sunway University College were surveyed (refer to Table 1). The participants comprised of 60 males and 60 females. For each gender, 30 students are local student and another 30 are out-of-state student. The students surveyed are 17 years old to 24 years old (M=19.39, SD=1.34) (not shown in table). Most of the participants are Chinese with a total percentage of 62.5% whereas 10.8% are Malay, 7.5% are Indian and 19.2% are others. However, the highest percentage for the religion is Buddhist with a percentage of 45.0%. Whereas the percentages for each of remaining religion of the participants are 14.2% Muslim, 26.7% Christian, 5% Hindu and the remaining 5% are others. The highest educational level achieved by most of the students is secondary school and diploma or equivalent with a percentage of 25.8% and 45%, whereas 28.3% had achieved a bachelor degree or equivalent and only 0.8% had achieved a postgraduate degree (master/docto ral level). Students were selected to be the participant for this survey because the research is studying about local students and out-of-state students therefore out-of-state students comprise of international student or student from other states in Malaysia besides Selangor and Kuala Lumpur and the local student are those who are raised up in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Table 1 Demographics Demographics Number Valid percent Gender Male Female 60 60 50.0 50.0 Hometown Local Out-of-state 60 60 50.0 50.0 Race Malay Chinese Indian Others 13 75 9 23 10.8 62.5 7.5 19.2 Religion Muslim Buddhist Hindu Christian Others 17 59 6 32 6 14.2 49.2 5.0 26.7 5.0 Highest level of education achieved Secondary School Diploma or equivalent Bachelor degree or equivalent Postgraduate degree (Master/doctoral level) 31 54 34 1 25.8 45.0 28.3 0.8 Note. Percent are calculated using SPSS. Measurement The measurements used to measure perceived social support in this study is Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) which was design by Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet and Farley in 1988 where scores are obtained from a 7-point Likert scale beginning with 1 for disagree very strongly to 7 for agree very strongly . This scale contain 12-item that measures three types of perceive social support from family, friends and significant other. For family, it has four item that are item 3, 4, 8 and 11, whereas friends has seven items which are item 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 12 and for significant other, it has 4 items but three item are the same item for friends which are item 1, 2, 5 and 10. Every item is summed up by itself and each total are then divided among the number of items it consist. Lastly, the score obtain will show the level of perceived social support, thus a higher score obtained shows that more perceived social support gain. Zimet et al. noted that MSPSS has good test-retes t reliability and known to have an outstanding scale due to its constant alphas (0.91) overall and the subscales tend to have alpha ranging from 0.90 to 0.95. Since it has a achieve a good reliability therefore, the validity for construct validity is at the same level as the reliability, whereas both factorial and concurrent validity is also excellent when it is associate with depression and with degree of coronary artery disease in type A patients (inverse correlation). The second type of measurement used is Friendliness Unfriendliness Scale (SACRAL) (Reisman Billingham, 1989). SACRAL is used because it measures friendliness as related to self-concept, accessibility, rewardingness, and alternation and also unfriendliness. As for this scale, it is made up of 20-item instrument out of 40-item since friendliness is rather complicated to be measure since it associate with one particular person skills and beliefs and it is able to distinguish between high-SACRAL and low-SACRAL through the sum of the scores. It is divided into four different subscales that comprise of self-concept, S (item 1, 5, 9, 13, 17), accessibility, AC (items 2, 6, 10, 14, 18), rewarding, R (items 3, 7, 11, 15, 19), and alienation, AL (items 4, 8, 12, 16, 20). To obtain the friendliness scores, all four subscale item are added up together. Moreover, item 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, and 19 has to be score differently because they are in positive direction, so if 0 and 1 are rated, i t will be 0. Whereas for the other item, reverse scoring will be done, so if 3 and 4 are rated, it will be recoded as 0 instead. Reisman (1983) noted that, the reliability of SACRAL may obscure in information and the prudence of maintaining subscale scores is supported after being tested with coefficient alpha. However, the study done by Reisman for concurrent validity, shows that there is an agreement of 81% concerning the friends in the direction of endorsement of the items, which is to say that on about 8out of 10items one friend correctly indicated whether the other agreed or disagreed. According to Reisman and Billingham for the construct validity, 94% agreement rate between subjects SACRAL scores and the assessment of raters of subject responses in a laboratory setting. Procedure This study is assign as a group research and 120 questionnaires were divided among six of the group member. Each and every member approaches approximately 20 students in Sunway University College. Convenience sampling a type of non-random sampling (Mcburney White, 2007, pp. 257) is used because the participant needed are students therefore it is easy and simple for the data to be collected since we are studying in a college where we can approach to the participant easily and it also not time consuming. Besides, the student approached were generally in the college cafeteria, foyer and the library, which mean the students are having their breaks, so they will have time to answer the questionnaire. First of all, a consent form is given to each of the participant to allow them understand about the research conducting by our group, to know roughly how long will it take up their time to answer the questionnaire and to inform them that their personal information will be kept private and confidential then it come along with a set of questionnaire that consist of 12 social support item and 20 item that measures friendliness. A demographic form is enclose together with the questionnaire that contain personal information like age, gender, ethnicity, education level achieved, religion and hometown. After filling up, the questionnaires are collected from the participant to be analyzed. Result The aim of the t-test analysis is to help measure whether local student perceived more social support or vice versa. T-test is used because it analyzes on one categorical variable and one continuous variable plus t-test is also used because the independent variable for the first hypothesis is a two level independent variable. In addition, it also determines whether there is a statistically significant difference for both the variable (Pallant, 2007, p. 232). As for the Correlation analysis, it will determine whether there is a positive or negative relationship between the two variables and its strength (Pallant, 2007, p. 126). Hence, this fits for the second hypothesis since the research is to find out about the relationship between friendliness and social support. Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) data analysis program to test on both t-test and correlation coefficient for the two hypotheses, the results obtain are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. From the t-test analysis (refer to Table 2), the result shows the total amount of perceived social support received by both local student (M = 5.46, SD = 0.96) and the out-of-state student (M = 4.94, SD = 1.06). The result achieve is significant as hometown affects the total social support received by the local student and out-of-state student, t (118) = 2.81, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01. The only variable that was found no significant difference is the social support from family. Hence, hometown do not significantly affect students social support from family, where the mean of local student vs. out-of-state student is 5.45 vs. 5.12, t (118) = 1.50, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¥ 0.05. However, significant difference was found between local student and out-of-state student (M = 5.44, SD = 1.05 and M = 4.85, SD = 1.09) for social support from friend. This shows that hometown significantly affect students social support from friend, t (118) = 3.06, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01. Thus, local student receive more social support from friends as compared to out-of-state student. As for social support from significant other, it is found to be significantly different also. It is showed in Table 2 that hometown significantly affect students social support from significant other as the mean obtain for out-of state student (M = 4.92, SD = 1.35) is lower than the mean for the local student (M = 5.42, SD = 1.26) and the t-value is as follow, t (118) = 2.08, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01. Therefore, more social support from significant other is received by local student instead of the out-of-state student. Table 2 Local Student and Out-of-state Student Perceived Social Support from Family, Friend, and Significant Other Variable T df Hometown Out-of-state Social Support from family 1.50 118 5.12 (1.34) Social support from friend 3.06** 118 4.85 (1.09) Social support from significant other 2.08** 118 4.92 (1.35) Total perceived social support 2.81** 118 4.94 (1.06) Note. ** = p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ .01 Deviations appear in parentheses below means. Standard The results for correlation analysis are shown in Table 3. It is observed that there is a very significant relationship between friendliness and total perceived social support at r = .303, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01 and according to Cohen (as cited in Pallant, 2007, p. 132) friendliness and total perceived social support has a moderate positive relationship. This means that the friendlier the students are, the more perceived social support. A coefficient determination is also obtained which is 9.18per cent of variance being shared. Therefore, friendliness affects about 9.2 percent of the variance found in perceived social support. As for friendliness and the subscale of social support from friend and from significant other, it is found that both subscales have a very significant relationship with friendliness (refer to Table 3). Therefore, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) for friendliness and social support from friends is r = .367, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01 and for friendliness and social support from significant other is r = .338, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ 0.01, meaning that there is a moderate positive relationship between friendliness and social support from friend and also between friendliness and social support from significant others. Besides, it also tells that the more friendly one is, the more social support is received from friend and significant other. Despite the fact that, there is no significant relationship between friendliness and social support from family at r = .1.26, p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¥ 0.05. Table 3 Pearson Correlation of Perceived Social Support and Friendliness Variable Social Support from Family Social Support from Friend Social Support from Significant Other Total Perceived Social Support Friendliness .126 .367** .338** .303** Social Support from Family .544** .557** .801** Social Support from Friend .902** .932** Social Support from Significant Other .896** ** p Ã ¢Ã¢â¬ °Ã ¤ .01 (2-tailed) Discussion The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether local student receive more social support than out-of-state student. At the same time, the study also examines the relationship between friendliness and social support. The results that have been analyze indicates that the local student receive more social support from friend and significant other as compare to out-of-state student. But the unexpected finding was for the social support from family as it is not significant, this is comparable with Misra, Crist and Burant where they. From the result, assumption such that local student have the advantage to receive more social support because local student can easily adapt to their own country culture whereas it will be slightly more difficult for the student from out-of-state Similar prediction was achieve by Yue and Thao (2007). From the findings, it shows that out-of-state student receive lesser social support from friends and also lesser social support from significant other compare to local student. This result was also obtained by Demaray and Malecki (2002) showing that the Native American student perceived lesser social support while the ethnic student receive higher social support. Hence, the first hypothesis, local student receives more social support as compared to out-of-state student is accepted. The result is accurate because of the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) used in the survey. The correlation test indicate that there is a very significant positive relationship between friendliness and social support and this means the friendlier one is, the more social support is gain. Similar result can see in Sullivan (1999) research. The benefit of this study is that every subscale is analyzed and a very significant result are attain for both social support from friend and significant other. The reliability and validity of the Friendliness Unfriendliness scale (SACRAL) also contribute to the strength of the study. Thus, the second hypothesis, that there is a significant positive relationship between friendliness and social support is accepted. The limitation of present study is that the data collected is a small sample size only, thus the study is less likely to be accurate since the amount for each local student and out-of-state student and gender are controlled which it will give 30 subject for each hometown and gender. Besides, another limitation is that the number of year out-of-state student have been leaving in Selangor or Kuala Lumpur, where they might have gotten used to the environmental and may be their family live in a nearby state or country, which is now very easy n convenient to travel back n fro. Hence, the student might feel that they have enough social support. Nevertheless, future study is to help find ways to make the study a better one is that collect a larger sample, try collecting data from a wider range and use random assignment instead of convenience sampling. Besides, the number of year the student have been in Malaysia should be place in the demographic form, so that we can tell how long the out-of-state student have been living in Malaysia and that variable can be control. In conclusion, both hypothesis are accepted, as a significant result is obtain and the mean shows that local student receive more social support than out-of-state student. Plus, a very significant positive relationship is found between friendliness and social support. Hence, the more friendly the individual the more social support is gain by the individual. The research should have include the number of year an individual have been living in Malaysia, so that the limitation can be remove and the result achieve will be more accurate.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Wireless Vulnerabilities Threats And Countermeasures Information Technology Essay Introduction to Network Security maintains its focus on the network and its vulnerabilities, protocols, and security solutions. It includes network architecture, the functions of layers in a typical network, and network based attacks including header, protocol, and authentication attacks. Bottom-up approach, it provides understanding of the vulnerabilities and mechanisms of each layer of network security. In any stadium there is network security plan in order to control all the events occurred in the stadium like ticketing selling, consumable purchases, seating arrangement and others. By using the wireless technology and mobiles we can plan the top level network security in the plan, the steps taken in this are all the members in the wireless channel have one wireless mobile. From the mobiles all the members can give the information to channel that means it is a server. All the decisions taken by the empires are by the wireless only, the video channel also very much useful in controlling the stadium. Consider the cricket stadium Chinnaswamy, Cricket Stadium in Bangalore, INDIA. The boundary line of the stadium is marked by the rope and here the boundary line is called as the perimeter of the stadium having field diameter of 140 to 160 yards. Score board has to display scores and sometimes should work as a third empire for keen observation and all this setup should work with wireless technology because wired transmission cannot be implemented over there. This stadium with a seating capacity of 55,000. Features of the stadium: The entire stadium is equipped with the very sensitive digital cameras, short and long distance explosive detectors. Totally it have 29 closed circuit television cameras, in this 29 cameras five of them are very highly sophisticated which are having the 360 degree of vision and all these will covers all the corners of the stadium. Trained marshals will operate the 29 closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), nearly 20 trained marshals are there in the stadium. These marshals having the helmets which are with sensitive cameras and sensitive detectors which are capable for covering the explosives which are happened around of 300 meter, this is called as OSD(on-screen display) camera which in the helmet and it is directly connected to the CMS(central monitoring system) vehicle. This CMS vehicle is standing outside the stadium, so whatever the marshal see and do, each and every point of the stadium and things happening in the stadium are very clearly seen in the CMS (central monitoring s ystem) vehicle. The entire system works on SNMP(simple network management protocol). Total stadium can be seen in the CMS vehicle, and another important thing is that empires decisions for example take the out and not out decisions it can be displayed on the big digital screen. The runs taken by the both the teams will be displayed on the digital screen in stadium. At the heart of the modern stadium is a communications system capable of supporting the innovative new services and applications customers are looking for. Organizing and hosting events requires a complete communications foundation essential to satisfying the communication needs of fans, guests, corporate employees, service and security staff, event organizers, press and media. It is that to provide all the components needed to build a complete, converged, secure and reliable communications system. Security, communication and services are the main aspects at the stadiums now-a- days. The organizers and event managers should be able to satisfy the complete communications foundation essential to satisfying the communication needs of fans, guests, corporate employees, service and security staff, event organizers, press and media. And also the communication system which provides all the components needed to build a complete, secure and consistent communications system. Converged IP/Ethernet Core: Stadiums support the communications needs of events with much number of users. Moreover, the supporting infrastructure is shared by different groups with different needs including stadium corporate users, media and press and event promoters. It is important to the make the event successful with High-speed, consistent and secure communication which doesnt fails. With reliable, secure, high-performance, intelligent Ethernet connectivity the enterprise LANs can intelligently prioritize real-time business communications like voice, video and multimedia services. Voice communications: Voice communications are important in any environment and mainly in the stadiums. IP networks provide the strength and quality of service that voice service requires. Converging voice and data over IP maximizes network efficiency, streamlines the architecture, reduces capital and operating costs, and opens up new service opportunities. It would be secure for organizations of all sizes to use voice over IP (VoIP), with IP PBXs (Private Branch Exchange). Today the global markets have a complete variety of IP phones, including desktop phones with displays, rugged wireless handsets, and PC-based softphones. All of these access devices operate seamlessly across the range of IP-enabled platforms and applications. Mobility: The nature of the stadium environment is mobile. Staff move constantly on making the event successful and provide the security at the top level. For the users, it is essential to have the access to key information and communication tools and allows them to roam and remain in touch no matter where they are. In WLAN IP Telephony services, we have a large choice of mobile desktops and handsets. Voice calls can be placed from laptops or PDAs(Personal Digital Assistant) using soft phones and employees can be equipped with voice over WLAN handsets that support multiple functions extremely useful for stadium staff, such as text messaging, conferencing and a push-to-talk feature that allows groups of handsets to behave as walkie-talkies. With this, the good coverage can be assured in areas which are difficult to reach with public areas. Wireless Mesh Network extends the reach of Wireless LANs securely and cost-effectively for situations where cabling for the LAN network is not in place or too costly to deploy. Implementing new Technologies With a comprehensive communications infrastructure as the base, stadiums have the foundation on which to build an intelligent environment filled with new, media-rich applications and services capable of creating new revenue opportunities and improving the overall fan experience. Wireless ticketing kiosks: Premium seats for sporting events and concerts can be expensive. Stadiums can leverage wireless technology to implement standalone, mobile kiosks that attract fans to upgrade their existing tickets for an event onsite. Digital signage directs patrons to the kiosk during the event. The fan simply inserts his ticket, checks a map of available seats, uses a touch-screen to select the new seat and inserts his credit card to pay. The machine keeps the old ticket and provides the upgrade. The stadium fills the seats closer to the action and generates revenue that would have been lost. It creates a win-win for the guest, the team and the stadium. Stadium owners can use the same kiosk to encourage customers to buy tickets for future events while guests are onsite and in the mood to buy. The kiosk can advertise upcoming events and attract fans waiting to exit after watching a game or seeing a concert. The terminal shows a list of available events and allows users to follow the same simple steps to purchase a ticket. Additionally, stadium owners can use the kiosk to capture and collect valuable information about its customer base. The kiosk can advertise loyalty programs and contests that offer incentives for fans to provide personal data that helps the stadium better understand and communicate with its audience base. Public safety and security: With thousands of people attending major events at one time, public safety and security is critical. Stadiums can leverage the communications system to offer digital security options including digital video surveillance and RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) tagging and tracking. For example, stadiums can improve security threat detection with high-resolution IP cameras that provide full surveillance of the crowd using pre-sets by section: operators can select a stadium section and automatically receive all video from that section in multiple views. Operations staff can set rules to govern detection of left bags, perimeter entry, threshold crossing and loitering receiving alarms if any of the rules are breached Stadiums can improve event response through video feeds and text alerts that are transmitted manually or automatically to remote PDAs, laptops or offsite responders. All responders can be linked together automatically via dedicated audio conferencing channel. RFID tags can be used to locate and dispatch the closest security personnel to an emergency situation, ensuring a timely response. ABOUT NETWORK SECURITY AND TO FIND THREATS Vulnerabilities, Threats and Countermeasures Wireless networking has many advantages. Network configuration and reconfiguration is easier, faster, and less expensive. But, wireless technology creates new threats and alters the existing information security risk profile. Wireless networking alters the risks associated with various threats to security, the security objectives remain the same as with wired networks, preserving confidentiality, ensuring integrity, and maintaining availability of the information and information systems. Wireless Networks present a host of issues for network managers. Unauthorized access points, broadcasted SSIDs, unknown stations, and spoofed MAC addresses are just a few of the problems addressed in WLAN troubleshooting. Wireless Vulnerabilities, Threats and Countermeasures The wireless networks consist of four basic components: The transmission of data using radio frequencies; Access points that provide a connection to the organizational network and/or the Client devices (laptops, PDAs) and Users. Each of these components provides an avenue for attack that can result in the compromise of one or more of the three fundamental security objectives of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Wireless Network Attacks Malicious association Malicious associations are when wireless devices can be actively made by crackers to connect to a network through their cracking laptop instead of a access point (AP). These types of laptops are known as soft APs and are created when a cracker runs some software that makes his/her wireless network card look like a legitimate access point. Once the cracker has gained access, he/she can steal passwords, launch attacks on the wired network, or plant trojans. Since wireless networks operate at the Layer 2 level, Layer 3 protections such as network authentication and virtual private networks (VPNs) offer no barrier. Wireless 802.1x authentications do help with protection but are still vulnerable to cracking. The idea behind this type of attack may not be to break into a VPN or other security measures. Most likely the cracker is just trying to take over the client at the Layer 2 level. Ad-hoc networks Ad-hoc networks can pose a security threat. Ad-hoc networks are defined as peer-topeer networks between wireless computers that do not have an access point in between them. While these types of networks usually have little protection, encryption methods can be used to provide security. Identity theft (MAC spoofing) Identity theft (or MAC spoofing) occurs when a cracker is able to listen in on network traffic and identify the MAC address of a computer with network privileges. Most wireless systems allow some kind of MAC filtering to only allow authorized computers with specific MAC IDs to gain access and utilize the network. However, a number of programs exist that have network sniffing capabilities. Combine these programs with other software that allow a computer to pretend it has any MAC address that the cracker desires, and the cracker can easily get around that hurdle. Man-in-the-middle attacks A man-in-the-middle attacker entices computers to log into a computer which is set up as a soft AP (Access Point). Once this is done, the hacker connects to a real access point through another wireless card offering a steady flow of traffic through the transparent hacking computer to the real network. The hacker can then sniff the traffic. One type of man-in-the-middle attack relies on security faults in challenge and handshake protocols to execute a de-authentication attack. This attack forces AP connected computers to drop their connections and reconnect with the crackers soft AP. Man-in-the-middle attacks are enhanced by software such as LANjack and AirJack, which automate multiple steps of the process. What once required some skill can now be done by script kiddies. Hotspots are particularly vulnerable to any attack since there is little to no security on these networks. Denial of service A Denial-of-Service attack (DoS) occurs when an attacker continually bombards a targeted AP (Access Point) or network with bogus requests, premature successful connection messages, failure messages, and/or other commands. These cause legitimate users to not be able to get on the network and may even cause the network to crash. These attacks rely on the abuse of protocols such as the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). Network injection In a network injection attack, a cracker can make use of access points that are exposed to non-filtered network traffic, specifically broadcasting network traffic such as Spanning Tree (802.1D), OSPF, RIP, and HSRP. The cracker injects bogus networking re-configuration commands that affect routers, switches, and intelligent hubs. A whole network can be brought down in this manner and require rebooting or even reprogramming of all intelligent networking devices. Signal-Hiding Techniques In order to intercept wireless transmissions, attackers first need to identify and locate wireless networks. There are, however, a number of steps that organizations can take to make it more difficult to locate their wireless access points. The easiest and least costly include the following: Turning offthe service set identifier (SSID) broadcasting by wireless access points, Assign cryptic names to SSIDs, Reducing signal strength to the lowest level that still provides requisite coverage or Locating wireless access points in the interior of the building, away from windows and exterior walls. More effective, but also more costly methods for reducing or hiding signals include: Using directional antennas to constrain signal emanations within desired areas of coverage or Using of signal emanation-shielding techniques, sometimes referred to as TEMPEST, 1 to block emanation of wireless signals. Encryption The best method for protecting the confidentiality of information transmitted over wireless networks is to encrypt all wireless traffic. This is especially important for organizations subject to regulations. Securing Wireless Access Points Insecure, poorly configured wireless access points can compromise confidentiality by allowing unauthorized access to the network. Use anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and a firewall Computers on a wireless network need the same protections as any computer connected to the Internet. Install anti-virus and anti-spyware software, and keep them up-to-date. If your firewall was shipped in the off mode, turn it on. Change your routers pre-set password for administration The manufacturer of your wireless router probably assigned it a standard default password that allows you to set up and operate the router. Hackers know these default passwords, so change it to something only you know. The longer the password, the tougher it is to crack. Allow only specific computers to access your wireless network Every computer that is able to communicate with a network is assigned its own unique Media Access Control (MAC) address. Wireless routers usually have a mechanism to allow only devices with particular MAC addresses access to the network. Some hackers have mimicked MAC addresses, so dont rely on this step alone. Training and Educating Users Notice that Figure 1 also includes users as the fourth basic component of wireless networking. As is the case with wired security, users are the key component to wireless networking security. Indeed, the importance of training and educating users about secure wireless behavior cannot be overstated. To be effective, user training and education needs to be repeated periodically. The Security Policy To maintain a secured wireless network security, we need to apply these policies, so that the wireless network can be protected by the major threats and vulnerabilities. Computer Acceptable Use. A general document covering all computer use by eventstaff, including desktop, mobile, home PCs, and servers. Password. A description of the requirements for password protecting computer systems, the rules for choosing passwords, and how the password policy is enforced. Email. This policy covers the use of email sent from any email address and received at any computer system. Web. A specification of what browsers may be used, how they should be configured, and any restrictions on which sites event staff can visit. Mobile Computing and Portable Storage. A description of who owns the mobile computing and portable storage on the network, how they are supported, and what specific devices (if any) are authorized for use on the network. Remote Access. A policy stating who can access what information from which locations under what circumstances. Internet. A description of your Internet-facing gateway configuration, stating what is allowed in and out, and why. Wireless. A specification stating how wireless access will be managed on the network and how access points will be plugged in, secured, and maintained; who is allowed to use them; and under what circumstances. Servers. A statement of the standards for servers, what services are enabled or disabled by default, and important distinctions between production, test, and development environments. Incident Response Plan. No policy is complete until it also specifies what to do when defenses fail: what is considered a security incident; who gets called; who is authorized to shut things down if needed; who is responsible for enforcing applicable local laws; who speaks for the company. Standards: Workstations: Approval for workstation connection must be obtained as part of the standard workstation installation process handled by Information Technology Services, or authorized departmental technical personnel. Other devices (including, but not limited to, network components such as hubs, routers, switches, wireless access points, printers and other communication devices): Approval to connect devices other than workstations must be expressly obtained from Information Technology Services/Network Services. Vendors/visitors can obtain a physical connection access to the University network through Information Technology Services on a per visit basis. This access will be granted for a specific period of time Mail servers may not be run outside of Information Technology Services. Guidelines: Accounts Definition and use of departmental accounts and shared accounts should be restricted as much as possible. Only those functions needed by the user should be made available through such accounts. Servers 1. SSL should be implemented on Web servers if account log-in is required. 2. Run intrusion detection system where appropriate 3. Store backups offsite on a monthly basis. 4. Install firewall system where appropriate 5. Application updates must be performed every 30 days. 6. Run file integrity checker such as Tripwire daily. 7. Periodically test backups for integrity. Passwords 1. should not use any words found in dictionary of any language 2. should not use any combination of letters of a users real name, username, initials or nickname 3. should not use any combination of a famous persons name 4. should not use any combination of a spouses, girlfriends, boyfriends, or childs name 5. should not use any personalized numbers Workstations 1. Turn off workstations overnight. 2. Work-related files should be stored on the Novell cluster in the staff members home directory or the departments work directory 3. Implement periodic backups 4. Logging: a. should be enabled to record: i. successful and unsuccessful login attempts. ii. system and application errors. CONCLUSION: We introduce the top level network security plan in the stadium to control the things happening. So by this we can create the safe atmosphere to the audience in the stadium. We can prevent the things inside the stadium only but out side the stadium we cant, so the government have to come forward and give the external security to the stadium. Because of the terrorism attacks the government has to be very careful in giving the security to the stadium. For this each and every person who entering into the stadium is first checked with bomb squad and also by the wireless detector. By this we can provide the safety to people and the players in the match.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Tribulation Force Tribulation Force written by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins. It was published in association with the literary of Alive Communications, INC. in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1996. I got this book at the Thomasville Public Library. Jerry Jenkins is an experienced author. He has written or co-written more than one hundred books. His works have appeared in a variety of publications, such as ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s Digest, Parade, and many Christian periodicals. He writes his books in four genres: biography, marriage and family, fiction for adult, and fiction for children. Mr. Jenkins also writes the Gil Thorp comic strip. Jerry Jenkins has worked on this series with Dr. Tim LaHaye. Dr. Tim LaHaye is an author, minister, and counselor. Dr. LaHaye came up with the idea to put the rapture and tribulation into a book. He has written over forty books with a wide range of subjects such as, family life temperaments and Bible prophecy. Tribulation Force is part of a continuing series of thos e left behind. In the first book, Left Behind, the rapture took place. The rapture is when God takes his people or the people who has asked Jesus into their hearts up to heaven. This book is about the people that have been left behind and there struggle to survive. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s main characters are Rayford Steele, Chloe Steele, Buck Williams, and Bruce Barnes. Rayford Steele is a PAN-continental airline pilot. Rayford lost is wife and son in the disappearance (the rapture). Rayford was on his way to Israel when the disappearance took place. When he was on the plane he met Buck Williams, a newspaper journalist. They became fast friends. Chloe Steele, Rayford Ã¢â¬Ës daughter, is a collage student at Stanford University. She has moved back home to be closer to her father in their time of need. Chloe meets a journalist, named Cameron (Buck) Williams. They are currently going out and are eventually getting married. Buck Williams works for the New York Global Weekly, a newspaper, as their senior writer. At home in RayfordÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s church, New Life Community Church, they search for the reasons why their families were gone and not them. They turned to Bruce Barnes, a minister at New Life Community Church, for the answers. Bruce ha s told them that Jesus has came and took his people and that there will be an anti-Christ that will try to rule the world.