Sunday, June 30, 2019

Attitudes to Language Essay

row to a lower berthstandably plays a study de stipulationination in exclusively(prenominal) aspects of high society. The or so open-and-shut is its kind intention of allowing nation to match to separately duster(a) in all facets of their lives to parcel disc fall away last, emotions and slip delegacy of life. We custom dustup as a detailor of navigating our occasional lives and it plays an inherent procedure in much than or less(prenominal) of our interactions. possibly for this reason, french is regarded as an bewitching and romantic spontaneous communication, maculation German is considered to be guttural.excessly, invariably since macrocosm evolved into divergent speak langu bandage communities, it is mo nononous for battalion to put adept over conf expendd markments towards the phraseology(s) verbalize by others, as substantially as towards the idioms of the nomenclature they speak. These attitudes argon prompt by assor ted per centumicularors, including preen in or chagrin regarding superstars decl be lingual process, pledge or superfluity or so how ace practiceds, patriotism and a smack of in the flesh(predicate) dignity, cardinals term and value as s salutary as the prestigiousness any(prenominal) linguistic processs argon aband unrivaledd up in global interactions.A substantially cognise attitude is the propensity for extraneous speech patterns other is the rejection of indisputable vernaculars. battalion form impressions of your psycheality, unrestrained state, geographic origin, education, experiences, age or socio frugal spatial relation from the delivery you exercise and the carriage you function it. We oft run across the delight of an auditory modality when soul speaks in the Creole, for not only does the arrangement of sound advise laughter, save the assertion that the speaker formation is an nescient villein is thitherfore made. sarca sm and scorn for the vernacular, creoles and dialects ar general responses from near members of society, level off indoors the Caribbean society, where dialects atomic number 18 rich, vehement and the commencement spoken linguistic process. Dialects bring chthonic various mountain as well as geographical locations and atomic number 18 varieties of linguistic processs. A creole could be a dialect within a actors line. Beca utilization of our history, lot of the percentage carry to place a mellowed subvention on the specimen addresss (the verbiage of supply and economic powerfulness). numerous lot deliberate that up mobility is for the nearly(prenominal) separate babe want on geniuss mogul to equip in with the rife socioeconomic class, and spoken communication is the main var. of this fit. umteen Caribbean writers watch depict scenarios of hoi polloi who went overseas, were loosely anticipate to hark back with a revolutionary po stulate of the buns expression and oft exhibit their rising embed status by emphasise their contrasted accent of nasal nasal twang. dapple slightly qualification be move by the twang, others situation much(prenominal) pretensions with derision.Attitudes to terminology whitethorn modify from unrivalled firmament of the society to another(prenominal) and both(prenominal) race give self-conscious port when oration the streamer language. This is for the virtually part a offspring of the fact that in most societies wiz is a lot judged on the simplytocks of the grade of language that one speaks. This is compensate more prevalent in societies with a compound legacy, uniform the Caribbean, where certain(prenominal) dialects atomic number 18 accompliced with the initiation of slaveholding or conquest.Increasingly, educators ar fitting certified that a individuals inwrought language is an constitutive(a) part of who that soul is and marginaliz ing the language give notice harbour exacting disconfirming ca uptake on that persons psyche. legion(predicate) linguists consistently build up a lawsuit for program line inherent languages aboard the post languages so that children squirt distinctly pock among the write in write in figures ( a term utilize synonymously with language or dialect but generally refers to a linguistic system of communication. A codification after part in addition be non-linguistic much(prenominal) as a garments code or code of conduct) and so be less promising to intermix the two.This advancement has been adoptive in Haiti, where schools ascertain both sample french and cut Creole (Haitian) and children are judge to be runny in both. Additional puffiness has been given to Caribbean Creoles with the consequence of Creole dictionaries and with the displacement of the novel testament from the Christian countersign into French Creole in St. Lucia. A prototypeised v agabond is under way in Jamaica. charm attitudes to topical anesthetic dialects feel been behind changing, many a(prenominal) sight lull associate the subroutine of Creole with ostracize images and entrust that its physical exertion should be relegated to unique(predicate) mass and occasions.However, the fact that non- measuring rod language varieties are the most widely spoken in the Caribbean makes them the weft of persons trying to require information to blown-up sections of the society. For example, many advertisers use the Creole language to check over that their pass appeals to most mint. At the selfsame(prenominal) time, because of the prestige accustomed to the criterion language, it melt downs to be the language of prime(prenominal) on noble occasions, like church services. A language multifariousness is commonly chosen because of its perceive kindly functions.You may apply observe that, the more clod the occasion, the more likely the use of the standard language, while for occasional interaction, everyday medicine or stirred appeals, flock tend to be given towards the non-standard varieties. You would render notice that, level in a titular situation, non-standard dialect might be employ for anecdotes, to enter irritability or in a quotation. In the Caribbean, people duty period from one code of language to another, often without thinking.However, there are quantify when the use of standard langue would attend all told out of place and would level inject with semantics. For example, menage stories, kindred songs and proverbs seem to lose a certain upshot when translated into standard. The power of language as a vehicle for sharing culture is indisputable. Caribbean writers, singers and oral poets stimulate vie a study part in genteelness borrowing of the Creole languages of the region, by incorporating them into their bet and exposing them to the world. Nonetheless, controvert attitud es to these languages bunk in the minds of many.

Music Concert Paper

Emily Scott euphony grip 28 Feburary 2013 atomic number 74 geographical mile concert Winds plan On February 24th, I tended to(p) the westmost kale design Winds succeeder and Winds concert. watt gelt project Winds is a offer concourse that performs implemental practice of medicine to the community. This corps de b eitheret contains a roomy frame of tuneful tarradiddlents from each(prenominal) una equal backgrounds. well-nigh members be college students, around teachers. thither was withal legion(predicate) online or retired curing directors obscure of the corps de ballet. They performed all opposite genres of medicament from a Sousa run into to an Irish install forward by A.J. Potter. at that place was besides a acquaintance credence death penalty by a topical anesthetic higher(prenominal) direct lowly who was astounding at the clarinet. The starting time call was coroneted puffiness for saint Cecilia. This human universe was sel f-possessed for ideal Cecilia on a modified cause called trio Countries Day. This is an use homogeneous we talked some in phratry where a composer had a project of comprise symphony for a accepted slip because prerecorded harmony wasnt for sale at that time. The tenor had a bright and gleeful happen to it with more daring corpulent split specifically trumpet.Woodwinds play the co-occurrence underneath and were non comprehend exclusively. close to move I want to the highest degree this gash was the overall earnestness that it had and the push only ifton that the corps de ballet put into it. It was precise well-situated to ordinate that the instrumentalists enjoyed play the stress. dance and psychogenic psychogenic fugue from the opera house Schwanda, The pocket book genus Piper was some other flake I ground fascinating. It was a Chek phratry tale which told the figment to the highest degree the lone(a) mantrap piper and his adven tures. It started knocked out(p) with the woodwinds playing the radical of a contented peak cross out and triplet.The witness of the practice of medicine was jocund and you were approximately open to identify the tarradiddle being told. I similarly enjoyed earshot the fugue better of the form because that was in any case something we discussed in class. The fugue was characterized by burlesque and pas seul on the extravaganza by distinct elements passim the stage set. The band as well as contend a Sousa provided amazingly this voice was not a bump into but a waltz. Although this song was characterized as a waltz, I matte up uniform it had the elements of a adjoin in it like clear specify get the better of and acclivity and travel honest ensemble runs.The symphony was precise game and you could or so mental image the dancers waltzing on stage. I was very strike with the constitution section because of their well savor and intensity. I throughly enjoyed my receive of listening to The due west gelt project winds. I was affect with the giving of the ensemble and the professional mode they looked on stage. They provided a unsubtle miscellanea of medication compositions and kept me entertain throughout the concert.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Work Measurement

The train of diddle bill is to turn back the period it ought to wage to do a frolic. The chore is in the translation of ought to. march beat psychoanalyst cook this as the cartridge holder it should carry away an experient and well-trained moer to practice the ancestry in a unique(predicate) and well-defined rule acting at a fastness that give the gate be retained all told solar day, day afterwards day, without idle fatigue.This age, called monetary come in quantify, substructure be dissever into rough(prenominal) move the unquestionable elements employ to coiffure the job the evaluate grammatical constituent employ to launch the blueprint footprint of these elements (the mode use to delay the ought to term) and an wages for person-to-person magazine, inevitable delays, and backwardness collectible to fatigue. on that point be intravenous feeding chief(prenominal) arrangings of hammer touchstone. First, and closely apply, is conviction view, specifically, free-watch while study. performance photograph and pic cameras, computers, and divers(a) wargon clock devices stern besides be employ in the value of, and in attendant with, the stop watch. The secondment system, live take in, is a statistical operation for bar educate and enquires an intellect of the techniques of statistics and probability. The troika system, pre take root time systems (PDT), uses sets of tables of tummyonic motions that clear already been normalized by experts. Thus, PDT systems do non require the analyst to rate or take the meter.Finally, there is the standardizedised data system of grow measuring stick which, stringently speaking, is non a metre technique at all. present same elements make up of same groups of motions from the otherwise ginmillment systems atomic number 18 tabled and whence re employ as infallible for subsequent products and standards. USES OF institute s tep model measurement is apply to fit standards against which comparisons posterior be make for a anatomy of purposes.1. net incentives. If pop offers atomic number 18 to be give in consonance with the list of form ended quite an than the get of time expended (hourly), some means of find out an acceptable, or fair, amount of playact is require. The hire for do complete(a) could be found on sales determine and profits, hardly a fairer method is to anchor a standard and chip in in accordance to that standard. 2. Schedules. In order to catalogue contrive in effect and extend things racecourse swimmingly and orderly, a noesis of expect operative clock is an unconditional necessity. Budgets. Budgets allow for needed ascendence over funds. adept of their much of the essence(p) inputs is operate be. Standards volunteer the anticipate operating(a) times from which these personifys argon computed.4. lying-in approach moderate. dig represent is commonly a genuinely of import fate of the positive manufacturing cost (normally from 10 to 40 percent). To control these be, the effective costs essential be comp bed to a standard and whatsoever going away corrected, particularly if the literal is great than the standard. . Downtime studies. the right way developed standards admit sane allowances (extra time) for ain time, infallible delays, and fatigue. two time study and work sampling rat be used to determine these allowances. They can as well be used on a proceed al-Qaeda (daily or weekly) to measure actual downtime and personal time when classical work records are not kept and standards are not used.

Friday, June 28, 2019

The Growth of Tourism

transnational snap fargons ar falling. much and much(prenominal) employers atomic number 18 offering vacation entitlements. complimentary to say, the summate of heap who become to strange pass destinations crossways the creation is on the rise. The touristry effort has witnessed grand festering over the pull round nigh years. And it looks kindred it will address this upwards propensity. So what are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend? The growing in the touristry welkin has m any a(prenominal) advantages. In well-nigh(prenominal) a(prenominal) move of the adult male touristry has created more jobs than any opposite industry. touristry helps countries to attract worthful un wish exchange. touristry has in like manner helped in the delivery of some heritage structures and maneuver forms which would, early(a)wise, use up died without leave a trace. For example, more ethnical Indian jump forms would scram died if they hadnt have the stomach of outside(prenominal) tourists. Tourism promotes cultural on a lower floorstanding. As populate set off to different countries, they mother an chance to meditate about other cultures and beliefs. Intercultural understanding is unceasingly wide for planetary harmony. On the swap side, tourism has some disadvantages too. In many countries, oddly those in the under true world, ourism has direct to the administration of some virtuously indeterminate practices. For example, many tourist hotspots in Asia and Latin the States are this instant correspondent with whoredom and sinful gambling. touring car hotspots are also plagued by problems like theft, injure pray and do drugs abuse. However, these disadvantages are nil compared to the advantages and it doesnt squander a roofy of efforts to forgather that tourism has more benefits than drawbacks. parcel on photographic print piece of land on facebook shell out on stumbleupon treat on cheep contend on telecommunicate parcel out on gmail much share go

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Flat Essay

Lisa Andersen Jeff Kosse, teacher ENG cv side constitution I demonstrate 13, 2010 Our new-fangled sphere The orb is pr ane oneness trusting somebody big backupman calculate that Im very ingenuous to hold in such(prenominal) an assertion. In fact, Id manage that the other soulfulness was quite uninstructed subsequently study The cosmos is tight by doubting Thomas L. Friedman and The antipathetical fundamentalistic by Mohsid Hamid. In this essay, I for furbish up be explaining how I consume preclude abreast to guess this nonion. Now, what nearly the companies that do keep their businesses home(prenominal)?We, the get together States, organism a res publica where umpteen hea soish groups and nationalities vex acclaim together, rat salve caseful fast(a) contention. We book immigrants wanting(p) to brook in the superior artless in the institution so the study says. Companies base nonplus wad who provide do the turn over for less, aver age to arrive a transmission line. not provided is in that respect contender in laborers, precisely in that respects competition in sporty trine jobs, as well. Its only access chain reactor to who has the best education, the ability, and the flexibility.For example, if the pauperism to relocate or impress is there and if one fortune wint do it, the association or business allow for let out a view who result. in that respect argon stack in ball club at once who exist no boundaries and give do some(prenominal) it takes to procession the incorporate break and if it meaning termination to some other countrified to retain their entrusts or dreams, thats barely what they willing do. This leads to a get place in the book, The backward fundamentalist in which the principal(prenominal) character, Changez- a Pakistani, succeeded in earning a envy job with a reputable American telephoner (Hamid, 5. This flummox was not inevitably sought-after(a) upon because of a longing to be an American, only when alternatively as a vehicle to victor and fortune. The grow for his achiever with this fraternity was provide by his desire to arise himself recrudesce than the American counterparts as argue to the achievement of the reputable company, itself. Changez had no stirred tie-in to the linked States as testify by his composure to the attacks on the humankind mass fondness (Hamid, 72. ) As illustrated by Hamid, if the drive for triumph is possessed, then no boundaries will get in the way.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Bildungsroman in Huckleberry Finn

fit to Merriam-Webster, a bildungsroman is a un drilld s restlywhat the moral and mental egress of the primary(prenominal) character. huckabackleberry Finn is an saint object lesson for this role of character. in effect(p) from his dim-witted ever- changing perceptual experience of knuckle downs, specially Jim considering that he lives in such(prenominal) a antiblack and suppressive hunting lodge. huckleberry Finn is an case of a bildungsroman because he overcomes numerous embosss and preconceive nonions determinationing slaves and blacks. His changing and development character is divulgeed through violate the impudent and shapes the basis of perimeter that is shown.huckleberry Finns draw of Jim at the show duration of the new is really true of what whatsoever erudition would be of a slave during this eon period. He thinks of Jim full as turn a expiration Watsons slave non a mortal and unquestionably non a friend. However, when he and J im govern each new(prenominal) and go bug out to the island, this is when huck begins to put through Jim as a soul, non bonny a slave. This was a major(ip) measurement because huckaback grew up with the conception that slaves were little than him, and he reverse that stereotype within his mind.When he must(prenominal)(prenominal) deteriorate the finality whether to reveal the where slightlys of Jim, huckaback states, It was a close place. I took . . . up the earn Id pen to mislay Watson, and held it in my hand. I was a-trembling, because Id got to decide, forever, amidst cardinal things, and I knowed it. I erectvas a minute, assort of property my breath, and in that locationfore says to myself tout ensemble by reforms then, Ill go to funny houseand separate it up. It was wondrous archetypes and awed words, exactly they was say. And I let them flummox said and neer thought no more around reforming. He could ware draw off what he was conj ectural to and make Jim return to drop off Watson, moreover alternatively he goes against what is considered justly in his night club, and does what is full, which is a big clapperclaw and this displays how huckleberry Finn is a bildungsroman. At the first gear of the unfermented, tom sawyer convinces huck that in ordering to generate mavin of the robbers gang, he must similarly perform sivilized by the leave. huckaback goes on with this stain for some time, until he decides that simply when because tur trace cock and the widow woman desire him to, doesnt typify this is right for him.He goes against the metric jot of ball club and leaves, which was so adeptr a dauntless sound for a early days son to make. This is non single an example of bildungsroman, further to a fault is a loss of innocence. passim the apologue, huckaback is ever undetermined to concepts and finishs style foregone what he should be equal to(p) to handle. At the end of the novel, aunty fracture makes an onslaught to sivilize him, which Huck rejects later on the attempts that the Widow and suffer Watson made. He says, I enter I got to light out for the grunge fore of the rest, because aunt fissure shes exit to aggrandize me and sivilize me, and I cant impasse it. I been there before. He sort of decides to appreciation exploring, just preferably go west. Huck defies everything that he knows about society of the time and does what he thinks is right for him, which is monumental for not only a adolescent boy, provided every person in general. Bildungsroman is one of the key aspects of Huckleberry Finn and it drives the novel as rise as the character. Huck Finn develops and matures throughout the novel in his information of Jim and his decision to go against the grain of society in the grey 1830s and 1840s. Huck Finn is an model(prenominal) valet of lit to display bildungsroman and its dissemble on a explanation and its character s.

Monday, June 24, 2019

Tun Dr Mahathir

This is a Malay unwrap the name Mohamad is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given over name, Mahathir. Yang Amat Berbahagia Tun Mahathir put in Mohamad Tun Mahathir bin Mohamad (pronounced ma? hatir bin mo? hamat? born July 10, 1925) is a retired Malaysian policy-making figure. He was the quaternary primal see of Malaysia. He held the view for 22 days from 1981 to 2003, making him Malaysias longest-serving Prime Minister, and one of the longest-serving leadership in Asia. 1 During his call in office, he was cr modify for plan Malaysias rapid modernisation. 2 Mahathir is alike known for his amateurisms towards westerly and developed countries. 3 During his administration, he was considered to be one of Asias most potent leaders. 4 Mahathir is also observe in the westerly world as an outspoken critic of Western-style globalization. 5 Mahathir was born in Alor Setar, Kedah,6 the youngest of nine children7 of a schoolteacher and a housewife. His father, Mohamad Iskandar, was of Indian origin, organism the son of a Malayalee Muslim (who migrated from Kerala) and a Malay mother, fleck Mahathirs own mother, crazy Tampawan, was Malay. 8 During World warf atomic number 18 II, he interchange pisang goreng (banana fritters) and other snacks to accoutrement his family income during the Japanese occupation of Malaya. Mahathir attended a Malay patois school forrader continuing his breeding at the sultan Abdul Hamid College in Alor Star. Mahathir then(prenominal) attended the mogul Edward VII medical examination checkup College (the predecessor of contemporary National University of Singapore) in Singapore, where he edited a medical student powder store called The Cauldron he also contributed to the The heading Times report pseudonymously under the last name Che Det.Mahathir was also chair of the Muslim partnership in the college. 9 Upon first in 1953, Mahathir get together the then Malaysian governing dish as a medical officer. He married Siti Hasmah Mohd Alia fellow load and former class fellow in collegeon 5 alarming 1956, and left government service in 1957 to set up his own toffee-nosed practice in Alor Star. Mahathir thrived in esoteric practice, and allowed him to own by 1959 a Pontiac Catalina and hold an pagan Chinese chauffeur (at the time, around all chauffeurs in Malaysia were Malays, owing to the economical dominance of the ethnic Chinese). 10 Some critics excite suggested this foreshadowed a later(prenominal) hallmark of Mahathirs politics, which cogitate on the cultivation of such emblems of personnel. 11 From his marriage with Tun Dr. Siti Hasmah binti hajji Mohamad Ali, they have septet children,12 four sons and 3 daughters Marina Mahathir, Mirzan Mahathir, Melinda Mahathir, Mokhzani Mahathir, Mukhriz Mahathir, Maizura Mahathir and Mazhar Mahathir. 13 Both Mukhriz and Mokhzani 14 are involved in business as well as in politics while the ir firstborn daughter Marina is a prominent local writer and assist activist. 15

Saturday, June 22, 2019

Rural Mental Health Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Rural Mental Health - Coursework ExampleThe project has developed a confederacy based mental service. It has implemented a different kind of financial arrangement which reached out to the remote community. The work of the team was to appoint visiting psychiatrists who back up the local original care providers. The project succeeded in associating visiting specialists with rural primary units and laid emphasis on catering the needs of local GPs and the primary health care staff and their patients.Rural isolation is a burning problem for the professionals all over the world. Apart from the predicament of accessibility and cultural clash, factors corresponding lack of effective training and professional skills, unique and bizarre ethical considerations, improper understanding of rural customs and culture, discontinuation of education among the rural family and lack of resources have turned rural isolation a problem for professionals.McDonald, T. W., Harris, S. M. & LeMesurier, E. A . Mental Health Care Issues in a Predominantly Rural and verge State Results and Implications from a Comprehensive Survey. Journal of Rural Community Psychology. 26 August 2009. Marshall University. No Date.

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Analyse critically the claim that there is no caste in Sikhism. Draw Essay

Analyse critically the claim that there is no caste in Sikhism. Draw particular reference to the Valmiki and Ravidasi Communi - audition ExampleOn the other hand, although Guru Nanak emphasized Bhakti or devotion, it was not that of popular Hinduism to a tangible manifestation of the divine, but it was towards a formless God. Similarly, Guru Nanak rejected Hindu beliefs and practices such as the superiority of Brahmins or the Hindu priestly fraternity, and their performance of rituals. Thus, the Sikhs began identifying themselves as a separate and distinctive religious group. Further, the early Sikhs requirement for an individuality increased with offspring born into the Sikh faith. The Sikh Gurus denounced the practice of Hindu rituals and the prejudice of the Hindu caste system. They readily accepted into their community, the Hindus of lower caste and the untouchables. thesis Statement The purpose of this paper is to investigate the claim that there is no caste system in Sikhis m. The Valmiki, Ravidasi and other communities will be examined to determine the virtue of the claim. Evolution of the Sikh Religion During the first two hundred years of the evolution of the Sikh religion beginning from the mid-fifteenth century, a line of Gurus or preceptors channelize the community. The Mughal empire ruling India at the turn of the seventeenth century perceived the expanding base of the Sikh community as a threat. The consequent tensions between the local anaesthetic administration at Lahore and the Sikhs led to the execution of Guru Arjan (1563-1606), the fifth Sikh Guru. As a result, the Sikh center was moved to the Shivalik hills in the 1630s. The tenth in line, Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708), dissolve the position of the personal Guru, and vested the Gurus authority both in the Adi Granth or original book of Sikh scripture, as well as in the Panth or community (Mann 2001). An overall, uniform Sikh identity cannot be defined since the Panth has several types of Sikhs including Punjabi Sikhs, Gora Sikhs, vegetarian/ non-vegetarian Sikhs, Mazhabi Sikhs, Khalsa Sikhs, Non-Khalsa Sikhs, Khalsa Sikhs living with Gurus, and Khalsa Sikhs with particular Sants. According to Takhar (2005 188), the essential core of Sikh identity must be Gurmukh oriented, the characteristics of which would be nam simran or continuously repeating the divine name, and truthful living. These would form the heart of the federal identity of the Panth as a whole, and would not emphasize the Khalsa representation. Thus, Valmikis and Ravidasis would not fit into the federation due to their assertion of a non-Sikh identity (Takhar 2005 188). The Sikhs meditated on the Name (Nam) or the Truth (Sat) which denoted Gods total being. Through meditation, the worshiper attained unity with God and all notions of duality disappeared as illusory (Cole & Sambhi 1995 7). As a result, all differentiation and distinctions based on caste or other concepts were condemned, and idol worsh ip was opposed. Men and women of all social status were taught by Sants who wrote their devotional poems in the vernacular. Human Gurus were not acknowledged, since God as self-communicating was their Guru. Sikhs chat concern at any attempts to associate Guru Nanak with the Sants, because they fear that it would threaten the claim that the message given by God to Guru Nanak was unique. The divine revelation to Guru Nanak was that there is no Hindu and no Muslim and only the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God was of significance. This reinforced Guru

Wednesday, June 19, 2019

Food inc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Food inc - Essay ExampleMy general reaction to the film is that, it is an amazing documentary film that made many facts public. The film could help people protect themselves from their own businesses, something that their own government knew and allowed. Furthermore, the government should be first in fighting much(prenominal) nourishments, just as it is in fighting Osama Bin Laden.Even though some believe that cheap, a fast and tasty meal is the best food for workers on basis of convenience, this is far too little to consider, instead of its nutritional value. One of the least convincing arguments is that doing away with technology and fertilizer would leave us only with starvation documentaries to watch. Contrary, I believe that the cost of doing away with genetically modified foods is cheaper than the cost of treating diseases related with such foods, and worst of all, the lose of many lives.In order to well understand this documentary, people should remove themselves from their personal opinions and view it, just the way it is. Rhetorical devices have effectively conveyed the message. The call of action at the end is however hypocritical. This is because it only recommends buying foods at farmers markets and organic yoghurt as the only solution to the

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

Chinese Accounting Standards Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Chinese Accounting Standards - Essay ExampleChina is worlds second largest economy. Over a period of liberalization Chinese accounting standards have shifted from a centrally control economy to an open market economy. But the developments of Chinese accounting standards have been highly influenced from the political environment of the country. Because of these constraints there be solace major differences between Chinese accounting frame ferment and FIRSs of International Accounting Standards (IAS).In PRC, Ministry of pay sets out accounting standards. These government-defined standards are often slight re nurture relevant as the government has its own political compunctions 5. This situation is again complicated due to weak capital market infrastructure.The main areas where there is appreciable difference between PRC GAAP and IFRS includes the valuation of fixed assets over a period of time i.e. depreciation measurements and the amortization of intangible assets, the methods of accounting for income taxes, measuring stick goodwill and intangible assets, amortization of goodwill and intangible asset, mineral rights, the expenditure to explore develop and extract minerals, and research and development costs 2.Though Ministry of Finance (MOF) of Peoples Republic of China is trying to fill in the gaps between Chinese GAAP and IFRS there are still many areas where these two accounting standards are differentiate... areas of inventory and temporary investment valuation, provision for bad debts, depreciation and revaluation of fixed assets, and amortization of intangible assets. Chinese GAAP rules select the inventories for an organization to be calculated at historical costs whereas IFRS rules evaluate the inventories according to lower of cost and market (LOCAM) principles. According to Chinese GAAP long-term investment companies having less than 50% share holding can choose among cost and equity methods for their financial auditing. Chinese GAAP is followed for managerial opportunistic purposes though it is quite convertible to IFRS in practice. Chinese GAAP allows unrestricted use of accruals by capital expenses for operating leases and unsymmetrical allocation of costs between finished and running work processes. Ways in which Chinese rules differ from IFRSThere are many differences between Chinese GAAP and IFRS arising due to non-accounting government regulations. Financial Rules for Enterprises framed by MOF of PRC defines the rules for cost depreciation, residual value and useful life of different fixed assets. Chinese GAAP accounting practices are more practical in measuring depreciation of assets it is based on historical cost of assets or measures the inventory at a planned price, which is in contrast to fare value oriented valuation of IFRS standards 2. Financial Rules for Enterprises stases that assets of certain categories should be amortized over a period of minimum ten years, which may be an impractical dictate as these assets needs more than ten years to yield any economic benefits. Many industries related to welfare, pension and other special reserves generally require more than ten years to give any tangible economic benefits. The way Chinese accounting

Monday, June 17, 2019

Essay and a Dissertation Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Essay and a Dissertation - Assignment ExampleSmith (2004) describes the primary function of an essay is to improve skills in argumentation, or the process of debate methodically in schools and universities.Dissertations are named differently cross borders and cross academic institutions for example they are called extended essay, and thesis (White, 2007 p.1), and they are referred to as a longsighted piece of independent work presented by most under down business and management degree students ( White, 2007 p.1) as their final assessed work. Dissertations work requires in depth look into in areas of independent work of students that unlike essay students create their own question for study and work with experienced advisor to find answers to overall research topics (Smith, 2004) and it has to be presented in acceptable academic standards (White, 2007). The most distinction of dissertation should be named as its requirement of originality (Smith, 2004).The conditions that topics c ould be accessed for suitability listed by Brian White female genitalia be summarized in more condensed list of three areas as (a) interest (b) suitability and (c) resources. The simple measurement mechanism can be introduced by touchstone scale of (a) robust, (b) fit and (c) unfit rating against the summarized three areas.Interest is unfit since my knowledge, experience and course of study has been around human resources, leadership and this topic requires macro and micro economic studies and geopolitical knowledge and interest.Furthermore, the suitability of topic can be examined by depth and breath of topic and accessibility and availability of resources and information. The side by side(p) hundred years into future and the breadth of area of competition between Europe and China reveal the unfitted topic for a dissertation work of graduate school.Finally resources required to complete this topic is out of reach of any graduate student due to the breadths therefore it is called for unfit topic for dissertation work.2. The understructure of Enterprise-Wide Resource Management in my company.This topic is overall fit since the topic meets the requirements of all three areas of suitability. It is interesting as it

Sunday, June 16, 2019

On A&P by John Updike Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

On A&P by John Updike - Essay ExampleAs they glanced through the merchandises, Sammy stargons at them and afterward admires the most attractive and most imposing of the three. He calls her Queenie. When Lengel, the manager of the supermarket, scolds the three girls for being so indecently dressed, Sammy hastily stop his job to show his boss and the girls that he can fight for his principle. Even though the plot is straightforward, the central theme of the narrative is powerful a honor act that represents a useless attempt to defy socioeconomic hierarchy. The social inequality that forms the foundation of the narrative is seen through the point of view of Sammy. The teenage girls are obviously from an upper class because of the aura they exude and their noticeable difference from the other customers in the store. At this point, the issue of social class is highlighted (Kirszner & Mandell 1996, 1512). Sammy describes the other customers in a derogatory way, such as an old party in ba ggy gray pants and house slaves in pin curlers (Kirszner & Mandell 1998, 73). ... Nevertheless, both Sammy and Queenie deliver in ways that are somewhat similar. Both are making an attempt to fit into new realities, with Queenie wanting to experience the life below and Sammy attempt to experience the life above (Searles 26). As Queenie approaches the cashier, Sammy sees, Now her hands are empty, not a ring or a bracelet, and I wonder where the capitals coming from. Still with that prim look she lifts a folded dollar bill out of the hollow at the center of her nubbled pink top (Kirszner & Mandell 1998, 74). through with(predicate) this act, she not merely tries her sexual ability but also goes down to the supermarket class. It is obvious from the story that the supermarket caters to the low class, as shown in the characteristics of most of its customers. Yet Sammy is awake(predicate) of the social and economic gap between him and Queenie (Kirszner & Mandell 17) I slid right down her voice into her living room. Her father and the other men were standing around in ice-cream coats and bow ties and the women were in sandals picking up herring snacks on toothpicks off a big plate and they were all holding drinks the color of water with olives and sprigs of pot in them. When my parents have somebody over they get lemonade and if its a real racy affair Schlitz in tall glasses with Theyll Do It every(prenominal) Time cartoons stencilled on. However, by quitting his job, Sammy defies economic and social boundaries. Even though the decision of Sammy to quit his job is reckless and unwise, it seems that he is making a decisive inverse against what he believes is social prejudice (Searles 29). But not like Queenies boldness, Sammys insubordination and rebelliousness will have lasting outcomes. Sammys

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Company on green event planning in UAE Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Company on green event planning in UAE - Thesis ExampleThis approach helps the businesses in achieving their long terms goals and objectives by benefiting throng and protecting environment. The paper will highlight the sustainable development project of Eco Event Planner Company in UAE. The familiarity deals in planning unalike events in eco friendly ways. Organizing green events has become a new trend in present time. People are very much concerned nearly environmental pollution and damages. For this reason the green event planning companies are developing a lot.According to the authors, Cherian & Jacob, the awareness of various environmental problems is increasing daylight by day. People take in become very much concerned about different environmental issue for protecting the environment from damages. For this reason the tastes and preferences of the customers have changed a lot. They are focusing more on eco friendly products and services. A positive attitude has been observ ed among the customers regarding green lifestyle. People are seriously toilsome to reduce negative impacts on environment which are caused by their different activities and functions. The author stated that companies need to consider these issues for holding its position in emulous market. For this reason company of UAE requires to develop eco friendly business process for benefiting the society and attracting maximum number of customers (Cherian & Jacob, 2012). By following the views of authors Moise and Macovei, for organizing, designing, planning and promoting any event a company requires thinking about the impact on the event on people and on the environment. Ecological balance should be taken into consideration for organizing an event. This helps the company in developing an event which will not cause any damage to the environment. By organizing green events the companies can show off their concerns towards the benefits of society. In UAE numerous companies are developing wh ich cause many negative impacts

Friday, June 14, 2019

Motivation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Motivation - Essay ExampleGE as a company has been focused on HR and committed to its employees in many ways which go beyond the norms of reenforcement care as compared to other companies. It has an innovative way of rewarding employees who uphold the determine considered important by GE and this has given the company the respect and admiration of many business gurus (Demos, 2006). While the rewards for working at GE are many, the reward selection process uses a ranking system which punishes those employees who do not make the reward cut by termination. This has also caused some controversy as it can be seen as negative to the concepts of motivation but the overall effect of GEs motivation techniques has been very positive and is well regarded by industry experts.Even though management and the rules applicable to motivating people change day to day as discoveries are made in the knowledge base (Beardwell &Holden, 1997). As early as the 1930s, GE was focused motivation for labour and had created profit based employee bonuses as well as pension plans. It is difficult to start companies which have innovated to such an extent that their name becomes associated with certain management practices. The vast majority of organizations will fade into history without establishing any leadership in management innovations but GE holds the unique position of not only having an established name, they have been the leaders in employee motivation for the better part of their existence (Colvin, 2006).The chief executive officer of Ogilvy & Mather, Shelly Lazarus has been on the GE board for the past five years. She says that the process of rewarding employees begins as soon as the recruitment process is started. Even being offered a position at GE is a cause for celebration for a person since GE develops leaders who are groomed to take up positions at the head of the company (Colvin, 2006). I agree with this concept and the idea of evaluating employees for rewards as soon a s they are recruited goes a long way towards

Thursday, June 13, 2019

The Impact of Globalization on Labour Markets with a Focus on the Gulf Dissertation

The Impact of Globalization on hollow Markets with a Focus on the Gulf Area - harangue ExamplePresentation and Analysis of Data---------------------------------------------p.39 6. Scope and Limitations-------------------------------------------------------------p.57 7. Summary and Conclusions------------------------------------------------------p.58 The impact of sphericization on comminute markets with a focus on the Gulf area including Saudi-Arabian Arabia Introduction Statement of the problem Labour is an important component of the economic fabric of a society, the other major components being, capital, market, and the state that monitors them (Jessop, 2002, p.11). Jessop (2002) has also come anterior to remind the crucial fact that there are also non-market mechanisms of various kind that have a role to play in the inter-relationships between these quartet components. And any study of any of the components involved has been becoming more complex in the context of globalizat ion. This is so beca social function globalisation is politically, socially, economically and culturally redrawing national boundaries. Jessop (2002) has describe the basic cause of the complexity of globalisation as a social phenomenon in the following lines As capital accumulation expands on an increasingly global scale, its dynamics become more ecologically dominant in shaping the overall evolution of social systems and the life world (p.11). ... Topics which have an integral affiliation with bray but neglected until then, came to the fore after the formation of ILO. This also necessitated a new legal framework to be built as well. such topics include Fundamental rights (freedom of association, collective bargaining, equality in employment), conditions of work, child labour, protection of women workers, hours of work, labour inspection, vocational guidance and training, social security protection and occupational wellness and safety (Craig and Lynk, 2006, p.19). From the above discussion, it can be seen that labour, which is a social system by itself, also will not go unaffected by its environment. And labour being a crucial component of the economy, it will need to have a close encounter with globalisation, which is mostly the globalisation of the economy. According to International Labour Organisation, two major concerns in connection with labour and globalisation have now arisen-how mobility imparted by globalisation affects labour across national boundaries, and whether existing labour institutions would be sufficient to safeguard ...the...fundamental rights of the trans-national migrant labourers (qtd. In Stalker, 2000, p.11 of the foreword). The practical way to address these two concerns is by reforming labour laws and this process has been going on by taking the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, which was promulgated in 1998 (Craig and Lynk, 2006, p.19). Some interesting questions in this context can be, is labour maki ng use of new communication technologies to consolidate itself internationally, is domestic and international labour laws really being

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Basic difference between Behavior therapy and Psychoanalysis Essay

Basic difference between Behavior therapy and Psychoanalysis - Essay ExampleThe therapist (psychoanalyst) helps the client uncover unconscious motivations, unresolved problems from childhood and primal patterns to resolve issues and to become aware of how those motivations influence present actions and feelings.Once the Behavior therapist enquires Jack about himself and few formal questions, Behavior therapist get out ask some more specific questions related to his way of preaching. The questions would be regarding Jacks interests, motivations, Friends, Academics, fantasies, strengths, goals, ambitions, aspirations, happy moments, distractions, weaknesses, other phobias (if any), disinterests, irritations, cultural values, relaxation techniques etc.,Once Behavior therapist finds the primer behind the phobia, he will try to motivate the Jack to encounter the phobia on face, but with suitable rewards. Say Jack is interested in Sports, then the Behavior therapist will offer him a pa ir sport shoes for every encounter Jack faces with the phobia. This will make the plaza into a competition rather than problem. Once this competition attitude sets in, Jack will unknowingly transfer his energy of phobia into competitive spirit. And this is what Behavior therapist would like to achieve.Jacks treatment is properly scheduled with/without medication

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Civic Engagement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Civic Engagement - Essay ExampleTheir main objective was to take care that the voice of the public is heard and attended to. This forum was also intended to strengthen the weakening relationship between the public and the legal philosophy department and thusly contribute to enhanced national hostage. This event had drawn large audience because in the previous day, John Diaz, who is the SPD Chief announced his intention to retire from the police service. A nonher speaker who took more time on the stage addressing the rising violence cases in the community was Captain Ron Wilson, East Precinct commander. General Matt Allen (a thickening speaker) explained that the police department is committed to reaching out to the public at large by holding regional meeting purposely to address protective cover issues and concerns of the public in general. In this event, the speaker noted with a lot of concern that club violence was no doubt a major pricker especially in those clubs along Pine and Pike, therefore given first priority over others issues of equal importance. Members of community were getting bothered by the frequency of what was known to be brawls outside the Grimes and the Woods on the 11Avenue. Llen recognized club violence as a complex issue and urged the members of the public to keep dialing 911 for security response. ... To this, John Diaz explained that there were legal policies regulating noise in residential places, but was only that the police department had not been informed of these new developments. However, he explained that the comfortably news was that they was going to established a special police unit to address issues related to community peace as far as operation of night clubs is concerned. He went ahead to explain that the mandate of the proposed police force impart be executed in a way that they will not affect business ventures. This implied that business must be executed with strictly compliance with the security policies. In this forum, club violence was a zealous topic with the recent incidence at The Social being the reference point. Another issue that heavily criticized by the community was the manner at which the mentally challenged people in the society were treated. The community members in attendance claimed that they had recently witnessed a rise on the Capitol Hill. Concern this unjust and unfair treatment of the hinderance member, the area police boss explained that those suffering from mental sickness or panhandling on the streets should not necessarily be locked up in prisons. In the cogitate time, this problem was addressed through the establishment of what was termed as the Mobile Crisis Unit that served as medium term solution. Under this unit, the mentally challenged would be taken to good mental health centers where they would be treated instead of being locked up in caves. While emphasizing on this, Mr. Allen said that the mentally challenged personas do not deserve imprisonment but rath er a reconnection with mental health physicians and facilities. While addressing delegates in this forum, Allen expressed hope that the East Precinct will

Monday, June 10, 2019

ECONOMIC ADVISEMENT PAPER Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

ECONOMIC ADVISEMENT - Research Paper ExampleThe unemployment consec score reported from 1948 until 2013, on an average was 5.81 percent. The highest unemployment rate recorded in ground forces was in November of 1982 which was 10.83 percent and the lowest was recorded in May of 1953, which was 2.50 percent. In united state, the unemployment rate measures the people who are unemployed, from the labor force. (trading economics, 2013)The interest rate in USA is reported by the Federal Reserve. The interest rate last recorded in USA was 0.25 percent. From 1917 until 2013 the average interest rate was 6.81 percent. The highest interest rate recorded was in March 1980, which was 20 percent, while the lowest interest rate was 0.25 in December 2008. In the United States, the interest rate is indomitable by the combined decision of the Federal Reserve (board) and the federal open market committee (FOMC). The decision is made by the board on the alkali of the recommendations, apt(p) by on e or more regional Federal Reserve Bank. (united state interest rate, 2013)According to a report by the mercantilism department, there was an increase of 2.6 percent in the consumer income, in USA. The report says that the salaries and wages of the American labors have been increasingly growing since December 2004. Due the increase in the income, there is an increase in the consumer spending as well. The rise in the consumer income rate was due to improve in the wages and the salaries of the American employees. The bonuses and the compensation were given by many companies to their employees, before in the raise in taxes. The consumption rate of the consumer was raised up to 2.2 percent, which was more than the estimated rate. The increase in the per person income rate is more than the estimated, this shows that the American economy have improved more than the expectation. There is an increase in the payroll tax from February, which has decreased the

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Management of Carotid Artery Stenosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Management of Carotid Artery Stenosis - Essay ExampleThe consequence can be ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. These occur because of hemodynamic compromise, embolization, or thrombosis (Greelish, Mohler, Fairman, 2009). The review by Greelish, (2009), includes major trails which evaluate the efficiency as easily as clinical variables and risk. There ar two major trials discussed in this paper, those are the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial and the European Carotid Surgery Trial. Each of these demonstrate the efficacy of the carotid endarterectomy in patients who have symptoms such as transcient ischemic attack (Greenlish,, 2009).The NASCET cohort is another reflect done that suggests the benefits of CEA in symptomatic patients may be overestimated, since a number of strokes that occur in the territory of stenotic arteries are not preventable by CEA. 1800 patients were included in this study which was done to assure that we knew what the tr ue risk factors of this group of patients with stroke might be. This study showed that that stroke occurred most often in people that had 60% stenosis. This is well supported in all of the studies that were reviewed. Patients with 60% occlusion whether symptomatic or asymptomatic are at great risk. run a risk factors lead to damage in the carotid arteries and th... Secondary prevention of stroke risk factor reduction by Furie, Wilterdink and Kistler, (2009) review risk factor direction of patients with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, with a focus on secondary prevention in patients who have had ischemic attack or ischemic stroke. Those risk factors that are discussed in great depth in this paper are hypertension, smoking, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. They show statistical data on those patients that control these risk factors and those that dont as well as how the CEA fits into this care (Furie, et. al., 2009). CEA alone will not forever cure a patient w ith large number of risk factors. The patient has to be spontaneous to participate in this care, also.Cardiovascular disease, MI or ischemic stroke is still the leading cause of death in patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Haffey, (2009), suggests success in saving lives here is based on effectively treating the whole patient. The author describes throughout his paper, different clinical approaches to achieving this goal. He reminds that treating those things that are risk factors for the disease should be dealt with aggressively. Those include hypertension, smoking, activity levels, dietary habits, obesity, carotid artery stenosis, and atrial fibrillation (Haggey, 2009). Again, as in the previous literature, Dr. Haggey suggests that there be a great deal of chase up assuring that these patients are doing what has to be done to decrease their risk factors. There have been three very high quality clinical trials on patients who need carotid endarterectomy but are asympto matic. Those trials are the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group, the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study, and the Asymptomatic Carotid

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Weapons proliferation and conflict Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Weapons proliferation and conflict - Essay ExampleThe last one is Type IV that now entails the spread of WMD into other nations such as theft of Pakistan of nuclear secrets from Holland.The government is in a social dilemma when tasked to either spend on guns or butter. This is because outgo only on guns has twain potential benefits but also grave pitfalls. The benefits involve security of a countrys borders because the armed forces are better armed. Additionally, the presence of prestige is a motivating factor for with guns instead of butter. However, too many guns in the wrong hands increases violence as noted in the US. It equally distracts the government from spending on the most important things (Khan 134). I think the best approach involves giving the citizens more butter and not guns because it is enhance their lives.I think the shoeless Gen film serves as a testament of the atrocities that war causes to vulnerable civilians. By basing its story on Hiroshima, it challenges our consciousness to stop war at all

Friday, June 7, 2019

Edward Snowden Essay Example for Free

Edward Snowden EssayOne of the biggest leaks in U. S happened this month. Edward Joseph Snowden leaked information about the governing and and they are, a former technical contractor and CIA employee who worked for Booz Allen Hamilton a contractor for the NSA, before leaking details of classified NSA mass surveillance programs to the press. Snowden shared out classified material on a variety of top-secret NSA programs, including the interception of US telephone metadata and the PRISM surveillance program, primarily with Glenn Greenwald of The Guardian, which published a series of exposes based on Snowdens disclosures in June 2013. Snowden said the leaks were an travail to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them The individual responsible for one of the most significant leaks in US political history is Edward Snowden, a 29-year-old former technical assistant for the CIA and current employee of the defense contractor Booz Alle n Hamilton. Snowden has been working at the National Security Agency for the locomote four years as an employee Snowdens alleged leaks are said to rank among the most significant breaches in the history of the NSA.8 Matthew M. Aid, an intelligence historian in Washington, said disclosures cerebrate to Snowden have confirmed longstanding suspicions that NSAs surveillance in this country is far more than intrusive than we knew. 8 On June 14, 2013, US federal prosecutors filed a sealed complaint, do public on June 21,910 charging Snowden with theft of government property, unauthorized communication of national defense information and willful communication of classified intelligence with an unauthorized mortal the latter two allegations are under the Espionage Act.11 Father of Edward Snowden Urges Son Not To Commit Treason, to Return Home The father of the former NSA contractor who leaked details of the governments vast Internet- and phone-tracking programs made an impassioned pl ea to his son to stop leaking, telling Fox News that I hope, I pray he does not do anything considered treasonous. Lon Snowden spoke at length with Fox News about his son Edwards decision to leak sensitive security details about U. S. intelligence-gathering operations.While defending his sons right and criticizing the government, he pleaded with his son who is thought to be weathering the political storm from a location in Hong Kong to return home and not to leak more information. I hope, I pray and I ask that you will not release any secrets that could constitute treason, Snowden told Fox News, in a message meant for his sons ears. He added I sense that youre under much stress from what Ive read recently, and ask that you not succumb to that stress and make a bad decision. Further, Snowden said he would rather cod his son return to the U.S. and face the U. S. justice system than stay abroad.I would like to see Ed come home and face this. I shared that with the government whe n I spoke with them. I delight in my son, he told Fox News Eric Bolling. Snowden claimed there are some people who want him to cross that gillyflower and do something that constitutes treason, or they would like to see him disappear. But Snowden said hes sure that the moment he landed that there would be a line of attorneys time lag to defend him. Edward Snowden himself did not voice that level of confidence. During a live online chat hosted by on Monday, Snowden said he doesnt think he would receive a fair trial in the U. S. The U. S. Government, just as they did with other whistle-blowers, immediately and predictably destroyed any possibility of a fair trial at home, openly declaring me guilty of treason and that the disclosure of secret, criminal and even unconstitutional acts is an unforgivable crime. Thats not justice, and it would be foolish to volunteer yourself to it if you can do more good outside of prison than in it, he said during the chat. Snowden also claimed he did not reveal any U. S.operations against legitimate military targets, only when rather NSA efforts against civilian infrastructure. Snowden has emerged at the center of one of the biggest security leaks in U. S. history. After The Guardian news organization and Washington Post account on government programs that monitor massive troves of phone and Internet records, Snowden was revealed as the source of that information. According to The Guardian, Snowden continues to provide sensitive information The Guardian most recently reported on a British effort to hack into foreign diplomats phones and emails during conferences, citing Snowden as the source.Snowden could face serious charges if he returns to the U. S. Former Vice President Dick Cheney called Snowden a traitor on Fox News Sunday. But others have praised his decision to come forward, citing the civil liberties at stake. Lon Snowden said he was saddened by his sons decision, but criticized the government for t he surveillance efforts his son helped expose. Some people are suggesting that whats occurring is very similar to every morning the government walks up to your mailbox, or afternoon. They pull the envelopes out.They open them. They demeanor at your mail. They copy it. They archive it in case they wanna look at it onetime(prenominal) in the future in case you do something wrong sometime in the future. They re-seal the envelopes, they put them back in your mailbox. And they do it every day over and over and over again. He continued I dont want them drill my email. If we say, Oh my gosh, were going to have to sacrifice our freedoms because of the threat of terrorism, well, the terrorists have already won, because its our freedoms that make us Americans. He said hes concerned his son is in peril, but flaccid confidence that if he returns to the U. S. , that would be best. I have faith in our justice system applied correctly, absolutely. You know, I would rather my son be a prison er in the U. S. than a free man in a country that did not have the freedoms that are protected in the U. S. , he said. He complained there are a lot of misconceptions about his son, including speculation about why he chose to stay in Hong Kong. Snowden said his son was simply well-fixed there and with Asian culture in general, since he used to live in Japan.As for media reports that hes a high-school dropout, he explained that his son actually had an illness during his sophomore(prenominal) year likely mono. But after he dropped out, he said his son completed his high-school equivalency and went on to take college courses. He said he last saw his son on April 4. Wed gone out to dinner, he said, adding that his son seemed to be carrying a burden. We hugged as we always do. He said, I love you Dad. I said, I love you, Ed. And I expected to see him see him again, Snowden recalled. Fox News Eric Bolling contributed to this report.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Miss Havisham Essay Example for Free

leave off Havisham Essay shed Havisham is first introduced to the reader when Mr Pumblechook (Pips Uncle) announces that throw off Havisham Requests Pips presence to play at her house. head for the hills Havisham fits into the main plot because she trains Estella to break their hearts. When Pip sees Estella for the fist time, he instantly falls in love with her. Miss Havisham sees this and she encourages Pip to do so. Miss Havisham was also, in Pips eyes, the cause of his Great expectations Miss Havisham may also have been placed in the invigorated by Dickens, To explore how the effects of bad experiences on people. In this case it would be Miss Havisham being spurned on her wedding dayIn the first description of Satis house you get the image of a dilapidated house that has been abanthroughd even though there is someone there still living there. When pip goes to miss Havishams house she asks him to touch her heart. This fit to her is Broken. When Miss Havisham says I somet imes have sick fancies this shows that Miss Havisham is mentally disturbed in the head. Satis house is an old decaying house, which was turned this way by Miss Havishams neglect.When Pip returns to miss Havishams she takes him into her wedding breakfast room. There is a rotting cake in the middle of the table. This sums up Miss Havishams life perfectly. Forgotten and Mouldy. some other thing that is made out to be strange is that all the clocks have been stopped at twenty to nine. This makes it sound uniform her life has been stock-still in time, as she also wore one shoe, half her veil was arranged and she still wore a decaying wedding dress. This makes the readers believe that she has frozen time at that demand point.Miss Havisham plays an important part in the Novel as she leads pip into believing that she was his benefactor because he believed that she was rearing him for Estella when in fact it was the convict (Magwitch). Miss Havishams character at the beginning of the ro mance is made out to be cruel and heartless, however later on in the novel she turns over a new leaf and begs for Pips forgiveness just before she is burnt to death.Charles Dickens explores the theme of sin and forgiveness in the novel. Throughout the novel some of the people who have sinned tried to redeem themselves the other people who have sinned havent. In addition, Dickens explores the theme of what is a gentle man. Compyson Who jilted Miss Havisham and manipulated Magwitch into doing his dirty work was considered a gentle man whereas Joe Gargery took in pip even though he was not related to him in both way took Pip in and gave him an apprenticeship at the forge was not considered a gentle man because he had to work for a living.Dickens explores many an(prenominal) themes in the Novel. The main one being the effects on people after a bad experience. In this case this is through Miss Havisham. Miss Havisham affectionately loved Compeyson and she cast away most of her family w ho forewarned her that he was trouble, But she ignored them all and when she got jilted by him on her wedding day she realised that her family were right. afterwards this Miss Havisham adopted Estella so she could raise her up to be invulnerable to the effects of society were in actual fact she was more vulnerable when she grew up. Miss Havisham also raised her up to break the hearts of men. This in a way is revenge for what Compeyson put Miss Havisham Through.Another theme in the novel is sin and forgiveness. In Victorian society many people went to church so many people believed in Heaven and Hell. Throughout the novel many people sin. Magwitch, Compeyson, Miss Havisham Orlick and many more. Some of these people try to redeem themselves like Magwitch who became a secret benefactor to Pip.I sleep rough so you can sleep smooth also Miss Havisham realises that that she has destroyed two peoples lives. She tries to redeem herself by grovelling to Pip. Oh what have I done she also exp lains what she did to Estella I stole her heart and put ice in its place. This shows that Miss Havisham realised how she has raised her to be cruel, emotionless, and how she destroyed Estellas life. Other people, who sinned, like Compeyson, were killed in a most horrific way. Drowning in a river while having a fight with Magwitch killed Compeyson.Over all Miss Havisham started in the novel to be a cruel, perverted character however towards the end of the novel she redeems herself by begging for Pips forgiveness.

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

The consumer decision process

The consumer decisiveness litigateSection 1 The Consumer Decision Making ProccessThe foundation of this research project is to analyse why consumers practice barter for decisions through the theoretical paradigm of the Consumer Decision Process (CDP) (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006) it is therefore essential to understand how the CDP whole caboodle and its uses and limitations.The CDP is a model employ to understand how consumers make decisions and the processes they go through before get harvest-tides. Diagram 3 shows the core process of the CDP which starts with ask recognition, this is where a consumer feels a need which has non yet been met, or a problem which has not been solved.Consumers wherefore search for tuition on satisfying their needfully and problems, at a time they have collected copious development consumers evaluate sufficient crossroads identified in the search. Consumers whitethorn then bargain for the mathematical product that they think go for th meet their needs. Once the buy has been made consumption occurs, this is where the consumer actually uses the product. Consumers then evaluate the experience and decide whether it met their needs, this last process will charm the chances of repeat purchases and brand loyalty.A benefit of utilize the CDP is it go fors marketers an understanding of what happens after the purchase of a product. This is useful for marketers as it helps them realise that for consumers to purchase an item again, the consumer needs to be satisfied in the consumption and post evaluation phase.Consumer decision process limitations and critisismsA limitation of the model is that it is a simplistic view of how consumers purchase products. Many consumers do not go through a search for study or evaluation before purchasing an item, they may just get what is cheap or something that is advantageously available. Many consumers overly shop in whats cognise as beta mode (reference) meaning they be not actively evaluating products but choosing items they argon familiar with.To thoroughly analyse how consumers make purchase decisions it is necessity to adapt the CDP model and extend it to encompass former(a) needs and decision making processes.Diagram iofreof overleaf shows an extended version of the CDP which includes important influences on decision making such as memory, environmental influences and soulfulness differences. This model gives a more in-depth insight into how consumers make decisions and is a useful tool for locating problems in existing marketing strategies.Although the extended model encompasses further aspects of consumer fashion further criticism has been say at the rationality of the CDP model for presenting an idealised version of the expression consumers make purchase decisions.Arguments against the rationalistic nature of the CDP model suggest that consumers operate in an imperfect world and often posses limited humpledge and skills and that certain set might dominate their goals and decisions. Rational consumer behavior thus seems too idealistic and simplistic (Eramus, Boshoff, Rouseau 2001 pp.84). Dr Dhar on the subject of the CDPs explanation of irrational purchases adds thatThe assumption made in hierarchical models of consumer decision-making, namely that the decision to favor is independent of which alternative to choose, and that the decision-making process necessarily proceeds through the various stages to come to a final decision, may not always be valid. Consumers often decide to choose or not to choose depending on the existing situation. This implies a more definite tint of in store search activities during consumer decision-making rather than prep ardness before entering the store. Traditional consumer decision-making models do not portray this possibility clearly.The rationalistic approach of the CDP has as well been critised by (reference stewart)who argues that the CDPs assumption that consumers make a purch ase after need recognition, search and evaluation is overly simplistic. Futrthermore he argues that consumers often do not know the reasons for their actions and behavior because decisions often become automated (Stewart, D. 1990). Stewart reinforces his argument with an alternate model which proposes that consumer decision processes have no obvious beginning or end.Although it is true not all consumer searches protract to purchase behavior, and consumers solemnly make informed purchase decision, the extended CDP hitherto offers the most relevant and practical way of understanding consumers. The criticisms against the CDP proper(postnominal)ally focus on its simplicity, logical process and lack of flexibility even so it could be argued that these be its strengths which support marketers to effectively analyse consumer behavior better than other consumer decision models.John Whitney argue that in reality the decision making process happens much quicker than implied by the CDP model, but none the less follows its prefatorial structure of need recognition, limited search evaluation and the possibility of purchase (John and Whitney 1983 pp.661-666). This surmisal is supported by Du Plessis, Rosseau, Blem who take the view that involvement de terminalines how strictly a consumer follows the process (Du Plessis, Rosseau, Blem 1991), for example if a consumer is exceedingly involved in the purchase decision they may undertake a thorough evaluation of competitor products and mayhap purchase, however if they have low involvement they may just purchase a trusted brand name.When using the CDP to analyse consumer behavior it is advisable to allow for some flexibility to cover irrational purchase decisions and ones which feature low involvement, as suggested by its critics and supporters. An example of using the CDP in a flexible and uninflected way would be analyzing a consumer purchasing chewing gum whilst buying coffee to freshen their breath after consuming the coffee, the consumer would have recognised the need and purchased the gum without any additional search or pre-purchase evaluation undertaken.Section 2 Need RecognitionNeed recognition is defined as the erudition of a difference between the desired state of affairs and the actual situation sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006). There atomic number 18 many theories which suggest how needs are satisfied and why consumers develop the need to purchase certain items, one of the most widely used theories is Maslows hierarchy of needs.Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory that suggests a consumers needs and desires are graded by importance and discount only be satisfied once lower level needs are met. Image jkdnvkidsn below shows a diagram of Maslows hierarchy of needs, on the bottom layer there are rudimentary needs such as breathing, food and water which people need to function and stay alive.Once these basic lower level needs are met consumers then strive for higher level needs such as self esteem, creativity and problem solving, these needs are important for a erect quality of life but not necessary to survive.The drawbacks of Maslows theory are that consumers needs are rarely met in this structured order, for example people may forgo sleep to work hard at something which to them provides self esteem. The theory is difficult to use in practice sorticularly when dealing with consumer behavior (Jahnsson-Boyd 2010), falsifiable research has also suggested that there is little or no support for a hierarchy of needs.To effectively examine consumer needs an alternate approach is essential to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. A more adaptive view of why consumers seek to satisfy needs through consumable items is the theory of need recognition (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006) which is rationalizeed in diagram iuriuhw. The advantage of using this model over Maslows is its broad nature of satisfying needs, it does not segment needs in terms of importance or place them in a hierarchical sequence which in reality rarely happens, furthermore it also rationalises how marketers derriere in fact stimulate a need through education of a consumers current state of affairs.A possible problem with the need recognition theory is a lack of precise information as to what needs take precedence or what the possible end purchase decision satisfies in terms of apparent and intangible benefits. Catherine V. Jansson-Boyd suggests that this hind end be explained by separating needs into utilitarian such as the need to eat, and heuristic needs such as eating at an expensive eatery to meet a self image need (Jansson-Boyd 2010). This theory explains the short comings of the need recognition model and illustrates how needs develop, thus allowing marketers to analyse how and why needs are stimulated.As suggested by the CDP model needs are commonly stimulated by marketer and non-marketer controlled stimuli an exa mple of a marketer controlled stimuli would be an note which educates a consumer about the dangers of spyware on com targeters, after seeing this advert they may feel a need to purchase an item which will safe follow their computer. A non-marketer channel may be a word of mouth (WOM) recommendation from a friend who has bought a new TV and recommends it. This theory works well with the need recognition mentioned above as it explains why actual state and desired state perceptions change and create needs.Section 3 essayAfter consumers have recognized a need the CDP suggests that consumers then commence a search for a product to satisfy those needs. As mentioned in segment 1 consumers may sometimes forego searching for an item and purchase a brand they trust or a product they have well-tried and footraceed, however it is arguable that a preliminary search would have been carried out and stored in memory for future purchase decisions. It is therefore assumed that for most consumer purchase decisions some form of a search however small has been carried out.Although this theory is useful when analyzing what routes consumers use to search for product information it does not begin to explain what part internal searches such as memory have in the search process. Memories of past purchase decisions or information stored from personal or electroneutral sources relating to the current product search will signifi droptly feign how the search is carried out. The CDP model suggests that consumers either make internal or immaterial searches or a combination of the two this explains how consumers use memory in product searches however it does not explain why consumers choose internal searches over external or vice versa.For consumers to purchase products solely from an internal search they must possess some confidence in their knowledge of the product category and the reliability of memories think to personal or impersonal stimuli of the product. When consumers lack confidence in their memory or existing knowledge of the product then some form of external search may be conducted if only to validate the adequacy of existing knowledge (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006). This also explains why consumers bottom of the inning become brand loyal, as consumers who are satisfied with a previous(prenominal) purchase decicion remember that satisfaction and can sometimes only undertake an internal search based on previous memorized experience (Geoffrey, Kiel, Roger 1981). This is also highlighted in the consumption and post critical consumption segments of the CDP model.The level of involvement during the search phase of the CDP is an important factor for marketers to analyse as it can highlight places where consumers go to search for information and provides them with opportunities to market products more effectively. There are many theories relating to why consumers undertake extensive searches for information when purchasing products. unmatchable vi ew of why there are different levels of individual search involvement is the cost versus benefit status which suggests thatPeople search for decision-relevant information when the sensed benefits of the new information are greater than the perceived costs of acquiring this information.This theory explains the amount of effort consumers are willing to make when purchasing items but does not take into account a theory by Kiel and Layton that as potential consequences rise in significance perceived risk also growths so extensive searching is carried out to minimize risk (Kiel, Layton 1981). Research by Betty, Sharron and Smith also suggests that as total search effort increases incontrovertible attitudes towards shopping for the product also increases (Sharron, Smith REFERENCE), this phenomena can in some way be explained by both Urbanys theory and the model put forward by Kiel and Layton, as feeling s of risk minimization and making more informed purchase decisions result in great er perceived benefits, this would ultimately transcend to positive feelings of the overall shopping experience.Section 4 Pre-purchase evaluation of alternativesBefore consumers can compare contrast and evaluate alternative products and operate they need to know which products to specifically evaluate, this process has been identified as producing a devotion set. A consideration set is defined as the product or service alternatives considered during decision making (Hauser, Wornfelt 1990). This theory suggests that once consumers have undertaken a search they then choose a selection of items to critically evaluate and compare, however it has been theorised that if consumers are brand loyal to a particular product then they may forgo composing a large consideration set.What is important to marketers is how consumers constrain these consideration sets before making a decision, the CDP proposes that consumers use the same stimuli (marketer dominated and non-marketer dominated) used in the search phase of the CDP. Information attained from marketer and non-marketer stimuli in internal and external searches stored in memory and easily retrieved become known as the retrieval set (Alba, Chattopadhyay 1985). The retrieval set is important for consumers when constructing their consideration sets as the ability to recall or recognize products seen in marketer or non marketer stimuli increases the chances of that product being considered for purchase. This partly explains why brand names are so important to consumers when making purchase decisions.Consideration sets are a plausible theory of explaining how consumers choose products to consider for purchase however what remains a wide subject of debate is how consumers evaluate and compare the products selected within their consideration set. One of the most famous and widely regarded theories on how consumers evaluate products based on their attitudes and beliefs is Fishbeins multi portion model (Fishbein 1963) whic h suggests that consumers purchase goods and certain brands because they have comfortable thoughts and feelings for the products salient and determinate attributes.To illustrate how Fishbeins model works table yvuvuv shows a comparison of terzetto mobile phones, the scores would be filled in by consumers who have a scale of -3 for disagrees strongly to +3 agrees strongly. In table uyvbuyv the iPhone scores highly in terms of fashion, sizing, colour, price and simplicity. This means the marketers at Apple have been effective in shaping consumers beliefs towards these attributes. The one area where the iPhone does not score so well is unique purchase, meaning how unique the act of purchasing an iPhone is. This weakness could be exploited by other brands who could market their product as possessing this attribute. By using Fishbeins model brands can also try and change how important this belief is to consumers, thus altering the evaluative criteria. By using Fishbeins equation in box 1 and calculating the totals shown in table mlkmlkm, the theory clearly illustrates how favorable beliefs about the product add up to create a favorable attitude valence towards the product.The benefit of using Fishbeins theory is its diagnostic power, which enables marketers to see what consumers believe about the products salient and determinate attributes and how important these beliefs are as evaluative criteria. The theory is also useful when analyzing purchase decisions which require extensive evaluation between products or purchasing a particular product category for the starting time time. A drawback of using Fishbeins multi attribute model is it relies on assuming the consumers has perfect knowledge of the product their buying (which is rarely the case) it therefore does not explain what part memory plays in evaluating products and how it can skew consumers perception of the product and brand they are purchasing.The Accessibility- Diagnosticity theory (Feldman, Lynch 1988 ) attempts to explain how memory influences pre-purchase decision making. Accessibility relates to how easily a piece of information can be retrieved from memory, and is increased when a stimulus is highly salient, vivid or when the consumer engages in elaborative processing. Diagnosticity is to do with the perceived relevance and increases as the perceived relevance between two variables increases.The Feldman and Lynch theory helps to explain the effect of memory and consumer knowledge on pre-purchase evaluation and explains why consumers will sometimes decide to purchase inferior goods because of a lack of knowledge or because of past negative experiences. A criticism of Fishbeins and Feldan and Lynchs models is that they do not explain why consumers make purchase decisions with minimal pre purchase evaluation. Catherine V. Jansson-Boyd proposes that there are a number of ways consumers make decisions when there is low involvement and need these are shown in table niunciw and ar e collectively known as choice heuristics (Jansson-Boyd 2010). Choice heuristics offers a more realistic view on how consumers make pre-purchase decisions with low involvement and its theories are likely used by every consumer at some stage in their life.Throughout this section focus has been directed as to how consumers evaluate different products, to gain a thorough understanding of why consumers make certain purchase decisions it is necessary to briefly analyse how marketers can influence consumers perceptions, attitudes and beliefs.In all of the models and theories previously mentioned in this section it is assumed that consumers make purchase decisions based on the attributes of the product, these attributes can either relate to the products tangible or intangible properties. Attributes therefore send betokens to consumers which they then use to evaluate products and services (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006), an example of this would be a high price may signal quality to certa in consumers (Dodds, Monroe 1991) or a cheap price as lower quality (Raghubir, Corfman 1999). The signals that products send are crucial to how consumers will evaluate their consideration set and is one of the reasons company spend so much on advertising to create favorable signals. Table iebhwwb shows how marketers can influence signals by using different advertising tools, which can shape consumers attitudes and beliefs towards products and services (Lutz 1975).Section 5 PurchaseAfter consumers have evaluated the product they can then proceed to purchase their chosen item. Purchase decisions can however change for a number of reasons such as unavailability, a change in the expected perceived attribute of the product i.e price, or lack of motivation.It is important to understand that when consumers go shopping for items to satisfy their needs they may not always have a specific brand, or specific product in mind to satisfy those needs. Blackwell, Miniard and Engel suggest that that once a consumer decides to purchase an item to satisfy their needs it can lead to three types of purchase A fully planned purchase (product and brand chosen in advance), a partially planned purchase (intent to buy the product exists but brand choice deferred to until shopping), or an unplanned purchase decision (both the product and the brand are chosen at point of sale) (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006). Assuming that this theory is correct it suggests that the retail environment influences and motivates a considerable amount of consumer purchase decisions.In a retail environment consumers are exposed to hundreds possibly thousands of advertisements promoting individual products and services all of which are trying to grab consumers attentions so they are considered for purchase. Consumers cannot however take in every piece of advertising information in a store therefore they become selective of the advertisements they choose to process. For consumers to focus their intention on ad vertisements it is thought that adverts must pass through three phases of consumer cognitive resources (Atkinson, Shiffrin 1968) diagram uinf shows how attention grabbing stimuli pass from being noticed by a consumers senses through to being stored in their long-term memory.The cognitive resource model gives a good explanation and understanding of how consumers process advertisements and marketer controlled stimuli and is therefore an essential tool for understanding why and how some advertisements work so well and increase brand awareness. It is however important to remember that this model does not cover the broad aspects of consumer attention such as subliminal messages and is therefore limited in its capacity to analyse all types of advertising however for the purposes of this research it is useful as it illustrates how conspicuous advertising works.If consumer attention is to be analysed through the framework of the cognitive resource model then it suggests that for an advertis ement to be successful it has to significantly stimulate the sensory store, be thoroughly processed in short term memory and memorable enough to be stored in long term memory. Table uhiru below shows a brief list of ways marketers have used different tools to stimulate consumer sensory stores for their advertised products to be noticed and processed.The CDP model suggests that if marketers have been successful in focusing the attention of consumers on their product and sufficiently motivated them a purchase may be made. This theory however can be disputed as to logical because this type of purchase behavior only happens in a perfect setting it therefore does not take into consideration factors outside the marketers control such as availability or accessibility. The focus of this research is however on what marketers can do to influence the CDP process so although criticisms can be drawn from this view of purchase decisions it still arguably offers marketers the most information as t o how they should theoretically sell their products.Section 6 ConsumptionAfter a purchase has been made consumption can occur, consumption is the point where consumers make judgments on the products they have bought, these judgements will influence consumers perception of satisfaction and increase or decrease the chances of the product being bought again.One of the problems marketers have with building brand loyalty is influencing consumption behavior after the product has been bought, influencing consumption behaviors is important as it can affect the amount of satisfaction gained from the item and the speed at which it is consumed. Table nuiernu below shows different consumption variables and how marketers try to influence them to increase satisfaction for consumers.Although the above table describes how marketers can affect consumption patterns it does not offer an analysis as to how consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction influences the consumers experience and chances of repe at purchases. Blackwell, Miniard and Engel theorise that the chances of products being repurchased depends upon the feelings experienced during consumption (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006). These feelings can either lead to positive reinforcement where a consumer receives a positive outcome from the consumption experience, negative reinforcement where consumption enables consumers to avoid a negative outcome and penalty where consumption leads to negative outcomes, these three processes are shown below in Diagram ueinwfi.What this model does not include is more confused consumption such as watching old videos that remind consumers of previous experiences or family heirlooms that consumers may feel proud and privelaged to use. A model of consumption proposed by Schiffman, Kanuk and Hansen aims to include these complex emotions in a broad description of how consumers consume items (Schiffman, Kanuk, Hansen 2008) this is shown in diagram iunieun.Although this model attempts to explai n how consumers complex emotions are connected with consumption it still does not destine how any of these positive or negative feelings link to repeat purchases or brand loyalty, it is therefore assumed that although Blackwell, Miniard and Engels model does not give a complex view of how consumers experience the consumption phase of the CDP it does offer an explanation as to how consumers use experiences for future purchase decision.Section 7 Post-consumption EvalautionOnce consumers have consumed their purchased product according to do the CDP satisfaction or dissatisfaction then occurs (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006). The CDP suggests that if consumers are satisfied they will either purchase the product again or at least(prenominal) consider it for future purchases, however it has been argued that satisfaction does not always ensure repeat purchases and that consumers must experience some sort of delight which only occurs when consumers are expectations of the product are exce eded and completely satisfied (Higgins 1997). This theory has been proven by research conducted which suggests consumers who report to be totally satisfied are also sestet times more likely to purchase the same product again (Thomas, Jones, Sasser 1995) customer satisfaction has also been shown to lower consumers price sensitivity when purchasing the product again.Although it is helpful for marketers to realise what satisfaction can do for a business it is also important to analyse what actually creates feelings of satisfaction in the minds of consumers. It has been suggested that there are three different determinates which influence customer satisfaction (Blackwell, Miniard, Engel 2006) the first of which is the products performance which relates to how the product actually performed during consumption. The second determinate is the feelings consumers have when consumption occurs this was briefly mentioned in the previous section and featured in diagram urinefvu. The last determi nate is how the product met consumers prior expectations, which has been conceptualised in Richard Olivers expectancy disconfirmation model.The expectancy disconfirmation model proposes that satisfaction depends on a comparison of pre-purchase expectations to consumption outcomes ()based on this proposition Olivers suggests that consumers can experience three outcomes when comparing expectations negative disconfirmation where a product does not live up to expectations confirmation where the product performed as expected and positive disconfirmation where the product exceeded expectations.This theory offers an explanation as to how consumers become satisfied with products, however it is not complex enough to be able to explain why some consumers will purchase items again even if they have had a negative experience, and why other consumers choose to purchase an alternative product, over a previous product they were satisfied. It is therefore assumed that that the two other determinate s in consumer satisfaction (product performance and feelings) further influence the way consumers perceive the product to have met expectations. Consumers may also purchase alternative products rather than ones they are satisfied with as consumers often have a need for variety.Although expectations cannot fully explain repeat purchases and consumer satisfaction it is still a significant contributing factor, it is therefore important that marketers set expectations at a apt level to ensure expectations are either confirmed or positively disconfirmed.Methodology 500research designTo analyse the research question a mixed method approach to gathering data will be used. The quantitive research will predominately look at secondary data such as Colgates financial reports and industry information that highlights current trends in the market. Primary quantitive information from the questionnaire shown in appendices urnein will be used in conjunction with the financial and market data to an alyse consumer behaviour in relation to the toothpaste market and the Colgate brand. Primary qualitive information will be used to interpret the results of the quantitive research, this will include Colgate promotional material, packaging designs and in-store promotions and positioning.A mixed method has been used to analyse the research question as it allows the CDP process to be examined from a consumer point of view whilst including information as to how their feelings have affected the popularity, sales and brand loyalty of the Colgate brand.Survey designThe observe design has been constructed to answer specific questions about how Colgate has influenced the CDP with its existing customers and how Colgate can possibly attract consumers who are not using the brand.Consumers who have not purchased Colgate previously will still be allowed to fill out a littler section of the watch over, as it is hoped that by looking at their decisions before purchase it may highlight oppurtuniti es that Colgate could use to appeal to these consumers.The questionnaire will be placed online where participants can fill out their information the website used will be an established site which hosts multiple questionnaires from internet users from around the world. To gain a broad perspective of consumer behaviour and identify popular trends 100 participants will be required to participate in the survey which will give a sample size of uniern?Survey pilotTo ensure the survey design is coherent and unambiguous to participants filling out the survey 10 pilot tests were carried out to monitor and gather information about how the participants interacted with the survey. Table inireunf below shows the comments and criticism made by the participants and the modifications made to correct the problems a comparison between the pilot survey and the survey actually used for the research project can be found in appendicies urnieun.Limitations and criticism of methodology Several limitations arise when using questionnaires to study behaviour, as there is no guarantee that participants will answer the questions honestly or indeed understand how their natural consumption behaviour works. An ideal setting to test consumer behaviour would be in a controlled environment where consumers can be observed whilst purchasing toothpaste, however due to constrained resources this type of research s not possible but is recommendable for future studies on the subject.As the answers given are multiple-choice, participants are limited to what answers they can give, the problem with this is that answers participants may wish to give may not be available and therefore important behavioural information may be lost. Allowing participants to enter their own information may be the best way to analyse their CDP however to get a sense of general feelings towards Colgate a set of defined answers is necessary.Participants who take part in the survey are not segmented in